GNT 1 Peter 1:1 Pe,troj avpo,stoloj VIhsou/ Cristou/ evklektoi/j parepidh,moij diaspora/j Po,ntou( Galati,aj( Kappadoki,aj( VAsi,aj kai. Biquni,aj(


NAS 1 Peter 1:1 Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ,  Pe,troj (n-nm-s; "Peter"; the same being Simon Peter, one of the 12 apostles; Peter is his cognomen/nickname; Simon [fr. Heb. Simeon] is his pronomen/surname; Jesus gave him this name which in Aramaic is "Cephas" [Joh.1:42]; "Petros" means "stone/small rock"; cp.  use of "petra" and "petros" in Mat.16:18)  avpo,stoloj (n-Pred.nm-s; "an apostle"; one sent with full authority as a messenger/envoy)  VIhsou/ VIhsou/j Cristou/ Cristo,j (n-gm-s; subjective gen.; the one doing the sending; "Jesus"; + n-gm-s; "Christ/the Anointed/Messiah"; cf.Joh.1:41)  to those who reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, who are chosen  parepidh,moij parepi,dhmoj (ap-dm-p; "temporary residents/sojourners/strangers"; "to the ones residing as aliens"; used 3x; Heb.11:13; 1Pet.2:11)  diaspora/j diaspora, (n-gf-s; descript. gen.; term from which we get "diaspora"; "scattered abroad/throughout"; used 3x; Joh.7:35; Jam.1:1; used of Christians, Jewish and Gentile)  Po,ntou( Po,ntoj (n-gm-s; "Pontos"; lit. means open sea, cf.Rev.18:17; was the original name of the Black Sea; a Roman province in NE Asia Minor next to the Black Sea; used 2x; Act.2:9)  Galati,aj( Galati,a (n-gf-s; "Galatia"; large interior, mountainous region in Asia Minor, more specifically a Roman province in the southern part of the region; used 4x; 1Cor.16:1; Gal.1:2; 2Tim.4:10)  Kappadoki,aj( Kappadoki,a (n-gf-s; "Kappadokia"; an interior province of Asia Minor; used 2x; Act.2:9)  VAsi,aj VAsi,a (n-gf-s; "Asia"; Roman province in western Asia Minor; used 18x; area where the 7 churches of Rev. are located; Rev.1:4 )  kai, (cc)  Biquni,aj( Biquni,a (n-gf-s; "Bithinia"; province in the Northern part of Asia Minor; used 2x; Act.16:7)  evklektoi/j evklekto,j (a--dm-p; "the chosen ones/elected ones"; placed forward in the sentence to identify the audience as believers; used 22x; both for believers and Christ cp.Luk.23:35)


1.      The author of this epistle immediately identifies himself in the opening, “Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ”.

2.      As noted in the introduction, Peter wrote this epistle from Rome with help from the secretarial skills of his faithful brother, Silvanus.  1Pet.5:12-13

3.      Peter’s surname (pronomen or nomen) is Simon taken from the Hebrew Simeon.

4.      He was given the nickname (cognomen) Peter by Jesus which is the Aramaic of Cephas.  Joh.1:42 cp.Mar.3:16; Luk.6:14

5.      Authors of the NT are seen to use all 3 of Peter’s names and combinations of such throughout their writings.  Exs.Mat.16:16; Mar.14:37; Joh.6:68; 2Pet.1:1 (Simon Peter); Mar.1:16,29; Luk.5:4,5 (Simon); Act.1:15; 2:14; et al; Gal.2:7,8 (Peter); 1Cor.1:12; 3:22; 9:5; etc. (Cephas – restricted to Paul’s writings in address)

6.      The Greek noun “Pe,troj – Petros/Peter” means a little rock or stone.

7.      It is to be differentiated from “petrapetra” which means a huge stone, boulder or massive rock.

8.      Failure to discern between these terms has lead to the erroneous interpretation that Peter is the rock upon which Christ is to build the Church in Mat.16:18.

9.      Catholicism has used this distortion to further propagate that Peter therefore was the 1st pope of the Church.

10.  Both petros and petra are used in Mat.16:18 and Christ is using a play on words.

11.  Christ is speaking of Himself as the “petralarge rock” upon which the Church is built.

12.  Peter (and the other apostles) is metaphorically a smaller stone used to build upon Christ as the foundation for the Church.

13.  That Christ is the “petra”, see 1Cor.10:4.

14.  In all 4 uses of petra metaphorically, it is in reference to Christ.  Mat.16:18; Rom.9:33; 1Cor.10:4; 1Pet.2:8

15.  Peter was the son of Jonah/Bar- (Heb. son of) jona/John (agnomen: indicates branch of the family) and born in Bethsaida.  Mat.16:17; Joh.1:42,44

16.  He was the brother of Andrew and both were called early on in Christ’s ministry into  apostleship.  Mat.4:18-20; Mat.10:2

17.  In contrast to Catholic dogma for the popes to be unmarried, Peter was married.  Mar.1:30

18.  In fact, his wife accompanied him on missionary journeys.  1Cor.9:5

19.  Peter identifies himself without any elaboration simply as “an apostle/avpo,stoloj  -apostolos (without the d.a.) of Jesus Christ.

20.  This style of introduction is not uncommon and used by Paul indicating one’s reputation of office was all needed to identify the author. Cp.Rom.1:1; 1Cor.1:1; 2Cor.1:1; Gal.1:1; Eph.1:1; Col.1:1; 1Tim.1:1; 2Tim.1:1; Tit.1:1; cf.2Pet.1:1

21.  The predicate nominative of “apostle” directly equates this title and office to his name.

22.  An apostle is one that has been commissioned or fully vested in authority sent to represent another as a messenger or envoy (from apostello/avposte,llw – to send).

23.  Peter was one of the original 12 (Paul replacing Judas) so commissioned by Christ during His public ministry.

24.  While other men are referred to as “apostles” in the NT (ex. Barnabas; Act.14:14), that which differs between their apostleship and the 12 is that Christ personally commissioned/chose the 12.  Cf. the Great Commission of Mat.28:16ff limited to the 11; Cp.Act.1:2 & for Paul Act.9:15-16

25.  Others designated as sub-apostles simply derived their authority from men.

26.  That Peter’s office derived its authority from Christ is realized by the subjective genitive “of Jesus Christ”.

27.  A subjective genitive indicates the subject of the genitive as producing the action of that which it modifies.

28.  A grammatical translation of the opening phrase could be rendered, “Peter being an apostle as personally bestowed by Jesus Christ”.

29.  Peter received this authority when Jesus appointed the original 12.  Mar.3:13-19.

30.  The apostle’s authority to minister to multiple congregations was unique to the Apostolic Age.

31.  Throughout the Church Age, false apostles have emerged.  2Cor.11:13; Rev.2:2

32.  The readers of the epistle are immediately put on notice of the unique personal authority that accompanies its author.

33.  It indicates that its content carries the same weight as if spoken by Christ, as with all of BD.

34.  The recipients of the letter are addressed describing them using 3 terms in vs.1.

35.  The first in the Greek text occurs last in the NAS translation, “who are chosen”.

36.  It is forward for emphasis to identify first and foremost that his audience are believers that God chose before the foundation of the world to eternal salvation.  Eph.1:4

37.  The dative of address “to those chosen” is the adjective “evklekto,j – eklektos” meaning to choose or elect.

38.  The premise for their eternal election to salvation is further explained in the prepositional clause opening vs.2, “according to the foreknowledge of God…”

39.  The 2nd dative further identifies these believers as “to those who reside as aliens”.

40.  The term “parepidh,moj – parepidemos” refers to one that has a temporary residence in a foreign place that is not their permanent home.

41.  It is used 3x in the NT, 2x in 1Pet.1:1; 2:11 and of the roster of OT saints in Heb.11:13-16 recognizing their true citizenship being in heaven.

42.  This is the sense of this term that Peter now applies to these Christians.

43.  It establishes the citizenship of his audience in a spiritual sense as “aliens”, while residing as bona fide citizens of the Roman provinces in view.

44.  They are likened to people that are merely passing through a country with no intention of establishing permanent roots.

45.  This dative adjective emphasizes that believers are bound, wherever they reside, to be transitory sojourners yearning for their “up-country” home.

46.  “Home” for believers cannot be identified with any place on earth, but only with the new and heavenly order that God ushers in.

47.  For further parallel ideas cf.Eph.2:19 and Phi.3:20.

48.  We pass our Ph2 time on earth, but belong as citizens to heaven.

49.  We should therefore conduct ourselves as worthy ambassadors of our heavenly homeland.

50.  Again, as noted in the introduction, Peter’s audience was living in provinces of the Roman Empire suffering in a hostile society.

51.  This is what occasioned the letter.

52.  As former Gentiles breaking from their pagan history (cosmic counterparts), they were viewed with suspicion, resentment and general hostility.

53.  The epistle is designed to encourage them in the face of this ongoing and growing persecution.

54.  To be treated like “2nd class citizens” not truly part of Satan’s world is to be expected.  Joh.15:18-19; 17:14; 1Joh.3:13

55.  Peter will again use this term and idea to exhort regarding the importance of isolation of the STA for victorious survival as aliens perpetuating +V in the A/C in 1Pet.2:11.

56.  The 3rd term “scattered throughout” is unique as applied to these Christians.

57.  This descriptive genitive in the Greek is “diaspora, - diaspora” and means “dispersion”.

58.  It is used 3x and is a technical term adopted otherwise to identify believing Jews that have been dispersed outside Israel among the Gentile nations.  Joh.7:35; Jam.1:1

59.  A translation of these 3 terms addressing and describing Peter’s audience could be, “to a chosen people living as resident aliens of dispersion throughout...

60.  These congregations were made up predominately of Gentiles with the usual smattering of Jewish converts.

61.  It is plainly stated they had engaged in typically Gentile or pagan STA practices (4:3) and are differentiated from the Jews as formerly not a people, but now are (2:10).

62.  The universal designation as a royal priesthood further attests to the uniqueness of CA believers as a holy nation made up of all nations (2:9).

63.  These Gentile believers, like Israel, were scattered throughout the world.

64.  This designation ties CA believers with Israel as a result of Israel’s judgment.  Rom.11:17-24

65.  It indicates that Gentile believers are involved in a part of Israel’s history to carry on the administration of God’s plan in parenthetical lieu of Israel.

66.  Just as Israel is a diaspora waiting for a final gathering in Israel in conclusion of Daniel’s 70th week and the 2nd Advent, the Church is a diaspora waiting their final gathering at the Rapture.

67.  Just as Israel is dispersed throughout the world, so are CA Christians.

68.  In the meantime we are a brotherhood separated only by geography.

69.  The place Peter writes this diaspora letter from is Rome, not his home, and itself a place of exile and therefore part of the same worldwide diaspora his readers belong.

70.  All that distinguishes the author’s own situation from that of his readers is geography.

71.  However, no matter where one lives on the earth as a believer, Jew and Gentile alike, we are all part of the heavenly kingdom and share in the blessings of Jesus Christ, who is Savior of both Jew and Gentile alike.  Rom.1:16

72.  Peter’s choice of term indicates that these Gentile Christians all have as their background the OT designation and experience of the people of Israel.

73.  Israel is God’s chosen/elect people.  1Chr.16:13; Psa.105:6; 106:5; 135:4; Isa.65:9,15,22

74.  Their election from eternity past and their subsequent incorporation into the POG made them as aliens.

75.  Peter’s Gentile readers are not “aliens” by race, natural birth or circumstances, but because Divine election has estranged them, as with Israel.

76.  And as such, they are scattered throughout the world, not quite at home in the places they live.

77.  Spiritual growth heightens this sense within our hearts.

78.  Even if believers are comfortable with their surroundings, they are geographically divided from the majority of the royal family and remain aliens in Satan’s world.

79.  Like the Jews of the dispersion, we are a minority scattered among unbelievers.

80.  In this sense, our experience is similar to that of Israel (1 tiny nation in a sea of nations).

81.  Peter then lists the Roman regions where these Christians are scattered, “Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia”.

82.  These 5 regions are in the area known as Asia Minor at the time (to be differentiated from Asia) under Roman rule.

83.  Modern day Turkey represents most of this area today.

84.  The question is asked, “What was Peter’s relationship to his readers?”

85.  There is no compelling evidence that this pastoral letter is based on his own labors of evangelizing among them.

86.  If fact, he seems to disassociate himself in this regard (cf.1:12).

87.  Further, there is absence of any kind of personal experience with these believers.

88.  He does not mention any previous visit or contact.

89.  Since Paul labored in this general region, especially Galatia and Asia (Ephesus), one might conclude that the letter was circulated among at least some of the converts Paul evangelized.

90.  It could be that Peter entered into the labors of Paul as Paul was confined to his imprisonment in Rome.

91.  We know nothing of Peter’s movements as compared to Paul’s.

92.  It could be that the bearer of 1st Peter avoided contact with areas where Paul labored.

93.  While Peter was an apostle of the circumcision (Gal.2:7), his activity among Gentiles is attested.  Gal.2:12; Act.15:7

94.  It is obvious that Peter had made rounds through the Roman provinces (he is now in Rome) and there is nothing to disprove previous visits to these regions as circuits of apostolic influence in light of no explicit mention in the letter.

95.  While apostles did not tread on another’s canon (2Cor.10:13-16), with the immense geographical circuits of apostolic authority (authority over multiple churches), who is to say that the apostles did not assist one another in maintenance of established churches after the fact.

96.  One person could be spread only so thin..

97.  In whatever case, Peter was familiar with these Christians sufficiently to know what they needed to hear and held pastoral authority over them at this time.

98.  As the Apostolic Age pressed forward in time and their numbers diminished,  remaining Apostles would take up the slack.

99.  It has been noted that the list of regions in order beginning with Pontus and ending with Bithynia is curious, as both were considered a single province since about 64AD.

100.          However, if the date of writing is ~63-64 AD, it would mean that Peter’s itinerary preceded its writing earlier before they were singularly united.

101.          It seems that the order given is designed primarily to denote that a complete sweep was to be made over this area of Asia Minor ensuring all having access to the letter.

102.          What route the bearer actually took remains unknown.


GNT 1 Peter 1:2 kata. pro,gnwsin qeou/ patro.j evn a`giasmw/| pneu,matoj eivj u`pakoh.n kai. r`antismo.n ai[matoj VIhsou/ Cristou/( ca,rij u`mi/n kai. eivrh,nh plhqunqei,hÅ


NAS 1 Peter 1:2 Revised - according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, by the sanctification of the Spirit,  kata, pro,gnwsin pro,gnwsij (pa; "according to" + n-af-s; "foreknowledge/knowledge known ahead of time"; used 2x; Act.2:23)  qeou/ qeo,j (n-gm-s; possessive gen.; knowledge possessed "of God" as part of His omniscience)  patro.j path,r (n-gm-s; gen. of relation; "the Father")  evn  a`giasmw/| a`giasmo,j (pI + n-Im-s; "by sanctification/set apart for a purpose"; used 10x; Rom.6:19,22; 1Cor.1:30; 1The.4:3,4,7; 2The.2:13; 1Tim.2:15; Heb.12:14)  pneu,matoj pneu/ma (n-gn-s; subjective gen.; "of the Spirit"; ref. H.S.)   upon obedience to and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ:   eivj u`pakoh.n u`pakoh, (pa + n-af-s; into obedience/upon  obedience to/with reference to obedience"; used 15x)  kai, (cc)  r`antismo.n r`antismo,j (n-am-s; "sprinkling/to sprinkle"; used 2x; used ritually for purifying; figuratively of Jesus' atoning sacrifice; Heb.12:24)  ai[matoj ai-ma (n-gn-s; objective gen.; "of blood"; receives the action of sprinkling)  VIhsou/ VIhsou/j  Cristou/( Cristo,j (n-gm-s +  n-gm-s)  Grace to you and may peace be yours in fullest measure.  ca,rij (n-nf-s; "grace")  u`mi/n su, (npd-2p; "to you")  kai, (cc)  eivrh,nh  plhqunqei,hÅ plhqu,nw (n-nf-s; "peace" + vOpt.ap--3s; "may it  be multiplied/ever increase/be yours in fullest measure"; used 12x)


1.      Vss.1-2 comprise one long sentence in the Greek text.

2.      In vs.2, Peter continues the thought of these Christians as being God’s chosen.

3.      The thought is captured in the English NAS translation that ended vs.1 “who are chosen” associating it as the lead idea into vs.2.

4.      To be part of God’s elect is the individual that has decided to participate in God’s plan for salvation.  2Tim.2:10

5.      Participation begins with saving faith in Christ Ph1 a.k.a. the salvation adjustment to the justice of God (SAJG).

6.      He employs 3 prepositional phrases to define the process of how they were chosen in correlation to their faith.

7.      All 3 members of the God-head are represented as having particular roles in the election process.

8.      The co-operation of the God-head points to the complete harmony and agreement they maintain as One in essence, though distinct in Personality.

9.      The first phrase, “according to the foreknowledge of God the Father” indicates that the plan of salvation has always been a part of God’s eternal plan.

10.  It is God the Father that is the highest authority in the God-head and the architect of the plan for salvation.

11.  The noun “foreknowledge/pro,gnwsij – prognosis” is used 2x in the NT and means having forethought or foresight giving one the ability to know before hand or in advance.

12.  God’s foreknowledge is an aspect of His omniscience which is not limited to time or any other obstacles providing the ability to accurately predict the future.

13.  The nouns other use in Act.2:23 equates God’s foreknowledge with His predetermined plan to sacrifice Christ on the cross in Peter’s message on the day of Pentecost.

14.  Its cognate verb “proginw,skw – proginosko” has the nuance of actively predicting or anticipating that which is known and is used 5x in the NT.

15.  It is also used of Christ who was “foreknown before the foundation of the world” in 1Pet.1:20

16.  It is used in 2Pet.3:17 in a non-technical sense of knowing information in advance that helps protect believers from doctrinal error.  Also cp.Act.26:5 non-technical

17.  It is used of Israel’s election to salvation in Rom.11:2.

18.  Finally it is used in the same doctrinal context as our verse in Rom.8:29 where it precedes God’s predestination of the elect.

19.  Those whom God foreknew He predestined to be benefactors of salvation.

20.  His “foreknowledge” is not causative, only preventive from making any mistakes and the ability to perfectly anticipate ensuring complete compliance to His plan.

21.  His “predestining” or “predetermining” correlates with His election/choosing”.

22.  Those that He foreknew would be +V to the SAJG, He predetermined to choose them as benefactors, which principle is causative based on His Sovereign will.

23.  All of this occurred in eternity past.

24.  God foreknew all that would come to saving faith based on the attribute of omniscience.

25.  God desires all to be saved.  Eze.18:23,32; 1Tim.2:4; 2Pet.3:9 cp.1Tim.4:10; Tit.2:11

26.  To be just, God had to provide salvation for all and allow each person the freedom to believe or not.

27.  Otherwise, He would be a respecter of persons.  Cp. Job 34:19; Rom.2:11; Gal.2:6; Eph.6:9

28.  His predestining was based on His foreknowledge and not His unfathomable wisdom in some arbitrary way as espoused by Calvinism.

29.  While His election is causative, His omniscience is simply a supply of knowledge enabling Him to make perfect choices and determinations.

30.  God’s foreknowledge can be defined as His eternal prescience (prudence or insight of knowledge) with regard to the free will of each person.

31.  That He is omniscient, He perfectly understands the scientific (technical) workings of volition and is able to perfectly predict those that will choose for salvation or reject it.

32.  Foreknowledge answers the question regarding those that never hear the gospel and perish.

33.  He is only obligated to get the gospel to all that He foreknew would believe.

34.  For those otherwise He foreknew would believe, He determined that they would receive the call for salvation reaping its benefits.  Cp.Rom.8:30

35.  So election first is based on the fact that God knew +V would exist (when and where) and determined to make provision for these countless souls and ensure their salvation.

36.  The 2nd phrase, “by the sanctification of the Spirit” is reference to the Holy Spirit.

37.  The H.S. is the means for sanctification of the elect as seen in the instrumental use of the preposition “evn –en/by”.

38.  The noun “sanctification/a`giasmo,j – hagiasmos” is used 10x in the NT and has as its root “a[gioj – hagios” meaning “holy”.

39.  The designation for believers as “saints” is based on this concept.

40.  Sanctification” has the idea of setting apart for a purpose.

41.  As applied to Christians it denotes the believer being set apart to God in holiness/righteousness.  Cp.1The.4:7 cf.Ph2 Rom.6:19

42.  The subjective genitive “of the Spirit/pvneu/ma – pneuma” indicates the H.S. performs the work of sanctification.

43.  Paul uses this same grammatical construction (evn a`giasmw/ pneu,matoj) regarding God’s chosen in 2The.2:13.

44.  The sanctification in view in our verse is with reference to positional sanctification at the point of saving faith (among other works of saving grace).

45.  It is synonymous with the baptism of the H.S., whereby the one that believers is entered into union with Christ.  Cf.1Cor.12:12-13

46.  The H.S. is the means by which all that believe are joined into the body of Christ, of the Church Universal.

47.  Expressions such as “in Christ” and “in Him” specify this reality.

48.  The elect that God foreknew He set apart to Himself via positional sanctification by means of the H.S. baptizing believers into union with Christ.

49.  The cognate verb “a`gia,zw – hagiazo” is used in 1Cor.6:11 to include this sanctification with other blessings of salvation Ph1 (along with “washed” and “justified”).

50.  The 3rd description is introduced by the preposition “ei,j – eis” spatially meaning “into” beginning the phrase translated, “upon obedience to and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ”.

51.  The use of this preposition is designed to correlate the sanctifying work of the H.S. in the preceding phrase with the process of faith and what it accomplishes resulting in sanctification.

52.  Before sanctification (baptized into union with Christ) can occur, saving faith in Christ must occur.

53.  John uses the preposition “eis” throughout his gospel with the verb “to believe” to illustrate this principle.  Joh.1:12; 3:16,18,36; 6:29; etc.

54.  That our faith is literally exercised “into” Christ illustrates that a union is the result.

55.  While the events of sanctification, obedience to and sprinkling of blood are instantaneous upon saving faith, one is not set apart until the obedience and sprinkling have been realized.

56.  And the obedience and sprinkling of blood stems from the direct action of our faith, whereas sanctification by means of the H.S.

57.  To translate the preposition eis “upon” serves best to spatially facilitate the order of these events, though the idea of a union  (sanctification) remains closely related.

58.  The preposition governs both accusative verbal nouns “obedience to and sprinkling”.

59.  The noun “obedience/u`pakoh, - hupakoe” is used in association with faith.  Rom.1:5; 16:27

60.  The cognate verb “u`pakou,w – hupakouo/obey” is further used with reference to saving faith in the gospel.  Act.6:7; Heb.5:9 cp.2The.1:8

61.  This is referred to as calling.  Rom.8:30a,b

62.  When one exercises faith in Christ, they have been called into obedience.

63.  Obedience” is the willing acceptance of the gospel and projects the kind of volition God foreknew and chose to be benefactors of salvation.

64.  The final phrase, “sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ” pertains to Christ’s work on the cross providing salvation.

65.  The objective genitive of the noun “blood” receives the action of the noun “sprinkled”.

66.  Of Jesus Christ” is a possessive genitive to indicate He provided the blood necessary for sprinkling.

67.  The idea of “sprinkling with blood” recalls the Jewish ritual where animal blood was applied to persons and objects under the Law.

68.  The close association between obedience and sprinkling points to the ratification of the old covenant mentioned in Exo.24:3-8.  Cp.Heb.9:19-21

69.  Moses sprinkled blood to signify their qualification to serve God as His priest nation.

70.  Apart from the blood of the covenant there would have been no forgiveness.  Heb.9:22

71.  This ritual had typological significance.

72.  It pointed to the death of Christ and the benefit it brings to those that are obedient.

73.   Christ’s “blood” in not literal, but figurative for His efficacious work on the cross.

74.  The animal sacrifice was a type of Christ on the cross.

75.  The life source for an animal is found in its blood.  Gen.9:4 cf.Lev.17:11

76.  Christ died two deaths on the cross:  Isa.53:9 “Yet He was with a rich man in His deaths (tw<m' – mawet; n/pl/m); Phi.2:8 “…He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross”.

77.  The Bible teaches that spiritual death always precedes physical death per the example of Adam who died twice per Gen.2:17 (lit.; “dying you will die”).

78.  Adam first died spiritually and did not die physically until some 930 years later.  Gen.5:5

79.  Christ’s blood refers to His spiritual death during the 3 hours on the cross during which He took on the judgment of sins for mankind.  Mat.26:28; Eph.1:7

80.  He makes note that His fellowship with God was broken during this time when He cried out “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?”  Mat.27:46; Mar.15:34

81.  Afterwards, He cried out “It is finished!” to note that sin-bearing was completed.  Joh.19:30

82.  After that, then He died physically.

83.  Animal blood represents the judgment Christ experienced when He bore sins.

84.  When a person believes in Christ they are immediately forgiven of their sins positionally and purified before God possessing His +R in Christ.  2Cor.5:21

85.  The blood of the OT sacrifices, going all the way back to Adam and Abel, were but a shadow of the reality, which is Jesus Christ dying for sins.

86.  To be sprinkled with Jesus’ blood is to be cleansed or forgiven from one’s former life.

87.  The phrase is strictly a figurative expression or analogy to the real thing.  Heb.12:24 cp.10:4ff

88.  There is no external sprinkling as there is no physical blood applied when a person is saved.

89.  God cleanses and forgives the one that is obedient to the command to believe based on Christ’s sacrificial death.

90.  The sprinkling of blood is synonymous with the salvation term “justified”.  Rom.8:30c,d cf.Rom.5:9

91.  The H.S. is the means for sanctification, Christ’s work on the cross is the means for justification and our faith is the means by which we conform to the obedience of the Father to be chosen in His plan for salvation making all a reality.

92.  There is a Ph2 sprinkling associated with the RBAJG.  Heb.10:22

93.  It is noted that Peter’s choice of images confirms the impression that he writes to communities of Gentiles as if they were some strange new kind of Jew.

94.  Peter ends his greeting with terms common in NT epistles, “Grace to you and may peace be yours in fullest measure”.

95.  Benedictions of grace and peace are found in all Pauline epistles as well as 2Pet.1:2, 2Joh.3 and Rev.1:4.

96.  Grace is singled out first to epitomize all that believers receive from God from the moment of their salvation forward into Ph3.

97.  God’s plan is a plan of grace and grace saturates God’s dealings with believers.

98.  Peace refers to both inner tranquility (even in the face of adversity) as well as the external benefits that come to those that are in a right relationship with God.

99.  Inner peace is multiplied where there is intake and application of BD.  Joh.16:33

100.          Jesus promised this peace to His followers.  Joh.14:27

101.          Peace in the Hebrew greetings (shalom) covered all blessings, both spiritual and material that came to those that were +V.

102.          Peter is expressing a wish using the optative mood for the verb “plhqu,nw – plathuno/may be yours in fullest measure”.

103.          He expresses his desire for them to maximize in orientation to BD so they may receive its fullest benefits of blessing by God.

104.          Both grace and peace were theirs even under the ordeal of persecution that had come upon these Christian communities.  Cp.1Pet.4:12

105.          Review the Doctrine of Election and Calling.

106.          Review the Doctrine of Sanctification.

107.          Review the Doctrine of the Blood.





GNT 1 Peter 1:3 Euvloghto.j o` qeo.j kai. path.r tou/ kuri,ou h`mw/n VIhsou/ Cristou/( o` kata. to. polu. auvtou/ e;leoj avnagennh,saj h`ma/j eivj evlpi,da zw/san diV avnasta,sewj VIhsou/ Cristou/ evk nekrw/n(


NAS 1 Peter 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,  Euvloghto.j euvloghto,j (a--nm-s; "blessed/praised"; used 8x; the same ascription [vis-a-vis the entire phrase] follows the Pauline  style in  2Cor.1:3; Eph.1:3)  o` qeo,j (d.a. + n-nm-s)  kai, (cc)  path,r (n-nm-s)  h`mw/n evgw, (npg-1p; ref. Peter and recipient elect)   tou/ o` kuri,ou ku,rioj (d.a. + n-gm-s; gen. of relationship)  VIhsou/ VIhsou/j Cristou/( Cristo,j (n-gm-s + n-gm-s; gen. of apposition)  who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again   o` (dnms; "the one/who”; ref. God the Father; modifies the following ptc. anagennao +)  kata, (pa; "according to")  auvtou/ auvto,j (npgm3s)  to. polu. polu,j (d.a. + a--an-s; lit. many/much;  "great/plentiful/bountiful")  e;leoj (n-an-s; "mercy"; used 27x)  avnagennh,saj avnagenna,w (v-adj.ptc.with the d.a./a/a/nm-s; lit. "regenerating"; "causing to be born again"; used 2x; 1Pet.1:23;)  h`ma/j evgw, (npa-1p; "us"; ref. Peter and readers)  to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, eivj (pa; "into")  zw/san za,w (v-adj.ptc./p/a/af-s; "a living"; verb used 7x in 1 Peter)   evlpi,da evlpi,j (n-af-s; "hope")  diV dia, (pg; "through")  avnasta,sewj avna,stasij (n-gf-s; "the resurrection"; used 42x)  VIhsou/ VIhsou/j Cristou/ Cristo,j (n-gm-s + n-gm-s; gen. of description)  evk (pAbl; "out from")  nekrw/n( nekro,j (ap-Ablm-p; "the dead")


1.      Peter focuses his readers on their status as the elect in the salutation vs.1 (who are chosen).

2.      He then highlights the God-head as that which makes their election a reality in vs.2.

3.      Vs.2 emphasized that their salvation was determined by the Father in eternity past via perfect foresight and its workings of facilitating its reality is by means of the H.S. and Christ on behalf of volition obeying the gospel message.

4.      The consensus to be drawn by his readers is that the God-head has always had the bases covered to ensure their salvation.

5.      This is designed to instill confidence in the fact that all aspects of the POG has always been and will always be under His Sovereign control.

6.      His readers are first and foremost to draw encouragement and comfort from this fact.

7.      If believers are not confident in God’s omnipotent and immutable role in securing their salvation, they will not be stable in trying to live the Christian life.

8.      Doctrine builds on doctrine and confidence in basic doctrine lends confidence in the sophistication of working out Ph2 doctrine.

9.      If you cannot faith-rest Ph1 issues for salvation with complete confidence, Ph2 faith-rest will suffer.

10.  If you are not confident in your position in Christ your focus on Ph2 issues will be blurred.

11.  Confidence supports faith-rest and is key to facing the challenges of the CWL such as suffering (primary theme of 1st Peter).

12.  In vss.3-5, Peter then shifts gears extolling God.

13.  Vss.3-5 are one sentence in the Greek text centering on why praise is bestowed.

14.  His praise is declared on 3 levels:

A.    For Ph1 hope.  Vs.3

B.     For Ph3 inheritance.  Vs.4

C.     For eternal security.  Vs.5

15.  His praise is the result of a complete confidence in God’s plan for salvation.

16.  That salvation Ph1 has the eternal God-head at its helm to ensure its success, the believer can rest assure that all promises associated with salvation will also come to pass.

17.  This is essential for the believer’s happiness in life.  Cp.vs.6

18.  The praise begins following the exact Greek wording found in the Pauline epistles of 2Cor.1:3 and Eph.1:3, “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

19.  As with Paul’s epistles, the praise immediately follows the opening greeting.

20.  The adjective “Blessed/euvloghto,j – eulogetos” is used 8x in the NT and denotes that worthy of praise or blessing and is only used of God and Christ.  Mar.14:61; Luk.1:68; Rom.1:25; 9:5; 2Cor.1:3; 11:31; Eph.1:3; 1Pet.1:3

21.  It is not used as bestowing a blessing upon God (such as benediction), but is a declaration or open confession that He is worthy of praise.

22.  What is unique regarding the Pauline-Petrine blessing is that it is directed to God in relation to “our Lord Jesus Christ”.

23.  God is no longer defined in relation to heroes of the faith out of the remote past (the Lord God of Shem, Gen.9:26; the Lord God of our fathers, Ezr.7:27; the God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and of our fathers, Act.3:13), but in relation to Christ.

24.  Further the OT references to the “Lord God/Yahweh Elohiym” used together adhering the 1st and 2nd members of the God-head as Deity now has a distinctive split in use as the noun “Lord/ku,rioj – kurios” is appended specifically to Jesus Christ.

25.  “Kurios” is used throughout the LXX to translate the noun Yahweh.

26.  It use in our phrase recognizes the incarnation at which time Yahweh became flesh and distinct in nature as the God-man.  Joh.1:1,14

27.  A concept not lost on Peter in his confession of Mat.16:16.

28.  Instead of referencing the two members of the God-head abstractly as Deity, post-incarnation reference adapts to the reality that God has become distinct in the manifestation of these two personalities.

29.  The reference now specifically defines the 1st member of God as “Father” correlating His relationship to the Lord Jesus Christ as God the Son incarnate.

30.  This formula of address is designed to highlight Jesus as the main reference point in the believers’ relationship with God.

31.  That the believer’s relationship is associated with “ourJesus as Lord indicates that our relationship with God must find its point of departure with Jesus.

32.  It points to the fact that Gentile Christians have come to know Christ first and through Him the God of the Jews.  Cp.1:21

33.  That God is the Father of Christ preserves the recollection that the incarnate Jesus announced the gospel of God and claimed Him as His father.  Cf.Mar.1:14-15; esp.Joh.20:17

34.  The “God…of our Lord Jesus Christ” (cf.Eph.1:17) is the God whom Jesus worshipped and who raised Him from the dead.  Act.3:15; 13:30,34; Rom.6:4; Gal.1:1; etc.

35.  Because Christ glorified God through His work on the cross, the Father gave His Son authority over all things.  Joh.3:35; 5:27; 17:1-2; Phi.2:8-11

36.  By virtue of His authority, He holds the key of access to a relationship with God.  Cp.Joh.14:6

37.  Again a thought not lost on Peter as seen in his confession to the Jewish leadership in Act.4:8-12 esp. vs.12

38.  A further sense of the pronoun “our” underscores the special and personal bond that exists between believers and their Lord.

39.  The first of the 3 reasons why God is extolled (celebrated) is then given in the remainder of vs.3, “who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead”.

40.  The definite article translated “who” has as its antecedent God the Father and is grammatically attached to the following participle “has caused us to be born again”.

41.  While Christ reigns supreme in authority over all things, He remains in compliance to the Father’s plan.

42.  It recognizes that orientation to Christ is the same as orientation to His Father.  Cp.Joh.5:19,30

43.  Our worship of Christ ipso facto is worship of the Father and the POG.

44.  The incarnate Christ is the full explanation of the Father.  Cp.Joh.1:18

45.  Praise is first rendered to the Father because of His great mercy (polu,j e;leoj – polus eleios).

46.  God’s mercy is a by-product of His attribute of love.  Eph.2:4

47.  It indicates His willingness to express compassion or pity upon man in his helpless estate based on a plan of grace (grace in action).

48.  Though God knew man would fall into a sinful state, He yet made all provision to deliver men apart from any human efforts of their own.  Cp.Tit.3:5

49.  Further, God’s mercy (grace) is not stingy, shallow or superficial, but in abundance.

50.  While all men by virtue of their unrighteous sinful state deserve a judgment of eternal death, God has provided great mercy providing instead eternal life.

51.  How God reverses this death sentence is found in the adjectival participle “who has caused us to be born again (avnagenna,w – anagennaw)”.

52.  This compound verb is used only 2x in the NT (1Pet.1:23) and means to be “born again” “fathered anew” or “regenerate”.

53.  Its emphasis is the new birth or the doctrine of regeneration.

54.  The need for regeneration recognizes that men are born into this world spiritually dead void of a human spirit (dichotomous).

55.  Upon saving faith, God regenerates (replaces or forms again) a human spirit of which all believers then possess (trichotomous).  Cp.1The.5:23

56.  The human spirit operates in tandem with the H.S. as a witness that we are children of God.  Rom.8:16

57.  It is referred to as the “new man (self)” by Paul.  Eph.4:24; Col.3:10

58.  Christ taught the necessity of the new birth in His lesson to Nicodemus in Joh.3:3-8.

59.  The divine initiative comes from God the Father, but the H.S. is the agent of regeneration.  Cf.Joh.3:6b

60.  This is how God the Father becomes Father to those “born again”.

61.  Just as the individual becomes a member of a human family, so the one that believes in the Son becomes a permanent member of the family of God.

62.  The consequences of eternal death are reversed as we are adopted into the family of God.  Rom.8:15; Gal.4:4-6; Eph.1:5

63.  Our adoption guarantees a resurrection body.  Cp.Rom.8:23

64.  This mercy is indeed great considering the Gentile separation from God.  Act.14:16; 17:30

65.  The experience of God’s mercy is common to all believers like Peter’s recipients that were once destitute of mercy (1Pet.2:10).

66.  Gentile humanity had long thumbed their noses at God, while the Jews had abandoned their heritage.

67.  What united Jew and Gentile in Christ was a fresh display of God’s mercy.

68.  This came at a propitious moment in the A/C.

69.  It came at a time when the numbers of +V Gentiles in the world escalated as compared to pre-Christian times.

70.  Jewish interest remains low, a trend that has continued throughout the Church Age.

71.  It is “God being rich in mercy” who incorporates Jew and Gentile into His family in this special and privileged dispensation.

72.  What Jews had long been taught – that He was “merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abounding in loyal love and truth” (Exo.34:6) – was dramatically affirmed with the proclamation of the gospel from apostolic times onward.

73.  The purpose for the new birth is then expressed in the next prepositional phrase “to (prep. eivj – eis) a living hope”.

74.  Peter contrasts with the hopelessness of false religion that characterized the Gentiles pre-salvation era.  Cf.Eph.2:11-12 cp.Gal.4:8-9

75.  The WOG has nothing good to say about false doctrine.

76.  With the truth of BD, the believer’s hope is alive (real, valid, without disappointment).

77.  It reiterates the believer’s new spiritual condition possessing the human spirit making them spiritually alive.

78.  The human spirit is created with +R.  Eph.4:24

79.  Its essence is immune to the consequences of sin in the life.  Rom.8:10

80.  It is our passport to eternal life and the kingdom of heaven.

81.  It is the vessel of spiritual preservation which the believer is renewed in the image of God.  Col.3:10

82.  While we do not see it or feel it, all believers possess it and it is immune to death.

83.  The noun “hope/evlpi,j – elpis” can refer to either an anticipation (even a certainty) of good things to come or to the content of that anticipated.

84.  The hope is not a matter of “wishing” that something might happen, but an expectation of confidence that it will.

85.  Here, its use would emphasize the content looking objectively to all that God has for those born again.

86.  It refers to those things that those that are born again will enjoy in Ph3.

87.  Only those born again will enter the eternal kingdom of God.  Joh.3:3,5

88.  The life that we are born into is eternal life.  Joh.3:15-16

89.  This is our birthright, granted only to those that believe in Christ.  Joh.1:12

90.  Our living hope for this future blessing beyond the grave is based on “the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead”.

91.  The prepositional phrase beginning with “through/dia, - dia) is to be linked with the preceding living hope as Christ is the agency through which our hope stands.

92.  The resurrection of Christ validates His work on the cross.

93.  It is the seal (proof) that He was who He said He was and proof that God was working in Him and through Him to bring about the reality of salvation of the world.  Rom.1:3-4

94.  Being sons of the living God through Jesus Christ His Son, we are assured of future immortality in a resurrection body.  Rom.6:5

95.  The soul is saved at the SAJG with the new birth of the human spirit and the body is redeemed at the Rapture.

96.  As goes Christ, so go those that are His at His coming.  Rom.8:11 (The H.S. and h.s. operate in tandem)

97.  The last prepositional phrase “from (evk – ek; out from among) the dead” indicates His unique status from all who had previously died.

98.  Christ is the only person to date that has a resurrection body.

99.  His uniqueness in this regard is described in 1Cor.15:20 as “the first fruits of those who are asleep”.

100.          That God has ensured salvation is provided for believers (vs.2), we can be confident that the promise of eternal life in a resurrection body will also be realized.



GNT 1 Peter 1:4 eivj klhronomi,an a;fqarton kai. avmi,anton kai. avma,ranton( tethrhme,nhn evn ouvranoi/j eivj u`ma/j


NAS 1 Peter 1:4 to obtain an inheritance  eivj (pa; purpose; "to")  "obtain" supplied   klhronomi,an klhronomi,a (n-af-s; "an inheritance"; gifts received as a result of being an heir; used 14x)  which is imperishable  a;fqarton a;fqartoj (a--af-s; "imperishable/incorruptible"; not subject to decay or death; used 7x)   and undefiled  kai, (cc)  avmi,anton avmi,antoj (a--af-s; "undefiled/unsoiled/spotless"; free of impurity; used 4x)   and will not fade away,  kai, (cc)  avma,ranton( avma,rantoj (a--af-s; lit. of a flower in bloom unfading; "eternally fresh/everlasting"; hapax)   reserved in heaven for you,      tethrhme,nhn thre,w (circ.ptc./PF/p/af-s; ref. inheritance; "while being guarded/watched over/reserved or preserved")  evn (pL)  ouvranoi/j ouvrano,j (n-Lm-p; "heaven")  eivj (pa; "for"; emphatic replacing the normal dative)  u`ma/j su, (npa-2p; "you all"; ref.  believers in view)


1.      The opening prepositional phrase “to (eivj – eis) obtain an inheritance” advances a second purpose attached to the believer’s new birth (cp. “to (eis) a living hope” vs.3).

2.      It is designed to compliment the living hope believers have in receipt of a resurrection body.

3.      It provides fuller expectation of that hope describing it as “an inheritance”.

4.      It too recognizes the concept of a new birth, since children are heirs by right of birth.

5.      As God’s children, we are His heirs.  Rom.8:16-17

6.      As born-again believing heirs, all believers inherit the blessing of eternal life.  Tit.3:7

7.      Their inheritance in eternal life is all the blessings associated with Ph3.

8.      The H.S. is given as a pledge to ensure our inheritance.  Eph.1:13-14

9.      The basic package of which all believers are recipients is immortality in a resurrection body like Christ’s.

10.  Believers living in the CA dispensation inherit a membership in the Royal Family, irrespective of racial classification.  Eph.3:6 cp.1Pet.2:9

11.  For believers that engage in honorable service to God Ph2, there are over and beyond rewards for their works in the form of SG3 up to including the wreath/prize.  1Cor.3:12-15; 9:24-25

12.  Prize winners will rule over the nations with Christ in God’s earthly kingdom.  Rev.2:26

13.  SG3 demands isolation of the STA (1Cor.9:26-27) and even the simplest application in FHS will be rewarded.  Mat.10:42

14.  SG3 will be directly commensurate with “putting on the new man” in Ph2.  Eph.4:21-24; Col.3:8-10

15.  Reversionists forfeit their inheritance.  1Cor.6:9-10; Gal.5:19-21

16.  Discord and contention among the ranks costs you SG3.  1Pet.3:8-9

17.  Under no circumstances can our eternal inheritance be forfeited once we are in possession of it.  Heb.6:10

18.  Failure to make and hold the MAJG diminishes the extent of our inheritance in the lives of believers that reject BD Ph2.

19.  Peter uses 3 alpha prefixed-adjectives to describe the nature of our inheritance.

20.  Each description indicates the eternal nature ascribe to our inheritance in its own way.

21.  Ph3 inheritance is totally unlike earthly possessions; the point of the 3 adjectives.

22.  Firstly, “imperishable/a;fqartoj – aphthartos” means immunity from decay or death.

23.  The resurrection body is not subject to mortality or other ills that beset our natural bodies.  1Cor.15:52

24.  The wreaths handed out are called “imperishable”.  1Cor.9:25

25.  Second, “undefiled/av,mi,antoj – amiantos” indicates all inheritance is not subject to being undermined by sin of self or others.

26.  That this adjective is associated with STA activity see Heb.7:26; 13:4; Jam.1:27.

27.  Often temporal inheritance is squandered or lost as a result of STA activity.

28.  It is completely protected from the evils that permeate our world.

29.  The final adjective “will not fade away (unfading)/avma,rantoj – amarantos” literally looks to a flower in bloom unfading.

30.  It is the anti of the verb “marai,nw – maraino” meaning to wither or dry up.

31.  “Maraino” is used to describe the rich man that quickly or eventually fades away like grass and flowers.  Jam.1:11

32.  Ph3 inheritance is not transitory as with all forms of temporal wealth.

33.  It cannot die, be forfeited, fall prey to the ravages of time or lose its brilliance and sense of newness.

34.  It is not dependent upon social or economic standing but as a result of our faith in BD and application of it.  Jam.2:5

35.  If the nature of our inheritance does not wet your appetite, Peter then tells us that God is presently keeping it safe for us in an impregnable vault “reserved in heaven for you” (it’s real and awaits us).

36.  The perfect passive participle “reserved/thre,w – tereo” means to guard or protect.

37.  The perfect tense indicates that its protection was permanently established in the past with existing results and the participle indicates the ongoing protection assigned to it.

38.  Heaven is where our inheritance is kept and the realm from which these special blessing of Ph3 will be delivered.

39.  Jesus taught this same principle when He affirmed the reality of SG3.  Mat.5:12; 6:19-21; Luk.12:33-34

40.  Christ will bring our inheritance with Him at His return.  Rev.22:12

41.  Our inheritance has the omnipotent protection of God preserving it for distribution to His children.

42.  Our ultimate inheritance that awaits us is the New Jerusalem with the new heaven and earth in the eternal state in all its perfection.  Rev.21:7



GNT 1 Peter 1:5 tou.j evn duna,mei qeou/ frouroume,nouj dia. pi,stewj eivj swthri,an e`toi,mhn avpokalufqh/nai evn kairw/| evsca,tw|Å


NAS 1 Peter 1:5 who are protected by the power of God  tou.j o` (damp; defines the ptc.; "who"+)  frouroume,nouj froure,w (adj.ptc./p/p/am2p; modifies the m/pl/pro. "you" ending vs.4; "are being protected/guarded/being held in custody/being held prisoner"; used 4x; 2Cor.11:32; Gal.3:23; Phi.4:7)   evn (pI; "by")  duna,mei du,namij (n-If-s; "the power")  qeou/ qeo,j (n-gm-s; subjective gen.) through faith  dia, (pAbl; "through")  pi,stewj pi,stij (n-Ablf-s; "faith"; denotes agency)  for a salvation  eivj (pa; "into/for")  swthri,an swthri,a (n-af-s; "a deliverance/salvation"; ref. the rapture)  ready to be revealed in the last time.   e`toi,mhn e[toimoj (a--af-s; "ready/prepared/put in readiness"; used 17x)  avpokalufqh/nai avpokalu,ptw (Inf/a/p; purpose; "to be disclosed/revealed/shown"; used 26x)  evn (pL; of time)  evsca,tw|Å e;scatoj (a--Lm-s; "last")  kairw/| kairo,j (n-Lm-s; "time")


1.      The adjectival participle “who are protected” has as its antecedent the personal pronoun “you” ending vs.4 (acc/2/pl).

2.      Not only is the inheritance of believer’s being guarded in heaven, so are the believers themselves protectedby the power of God”.

3.      Though we are aliens in Satan’s world, we have God’s omnipotence on our side to ensure our own preservation to claim and enjoy our inheritance.

4.      What good is eternal inheritance if the heir apparent was to loose his familial status or otherwise not sustained and unable to literally receive and enjoy the inheritance?

5.      Equally important to the inheritance is the preservation of the heir, which is the emphasis of vs.5.

6.      The definite article “who” attached to the participle indicates all that qualify for inheritance.

7.      The present passive participle itself “are protected/froure,w – phroureo” is a military term meaning “garrisoned/guarded as troops stationed around or within a fortress”.

8.      This term indicates God’s protection of the believer doing battle in the A/C.

9.      The present tense of the participle denotes that this is an ongoing action.

10.  Its passive voice indicates believers are the recipients of God’s protection.

11.  All believers are protected by God in their destiny of being conformed to Christ.

12.  This participle compliments the perfect participle “reserved” relating to their inheritance in vs.4.

13.  As the former deals with the inheritance, the present deals with the believer’s soul (w/the human spirit).

14.  At the point of salvation the immortal soul is saved.  Mat.16:26

15.  The believer is assured that they are safe in God no matter their difficulties in dispersion among their persecutors.

16.  The instrument of means for this protection is “by the power of God”.

17.  The subjective genitive “of God” emphasizes that He continually flexes His omnipotence on our behalf in this regard.

18.  The persecutions, tests and sufferings of time cannot touch the “real you” – the soul.  Cp.Mat.10:28

19.  In terms of our eternal destiny, the soul is kept safe.

20.  It is protected throughout time allowing it to express itself +V to God and His plan allowing the believer to maximize their inheritance.

21.  The agency that puts the individual soul into this “secured zone” is then expressed through the prepositional phrase “through faith”.

22.  The “faith” in view looks to saving faith.  Cp.Rom.3:22; Gal.2:16; Eph.2:8; Phi.3:9; 2Tim.3:15

23.  When a person believes in Christ he/she is from that moment forward and forever, saved by the power of God.  Heb.5:9

24.  Even if a believer does not maintain a continued faith in Christ, they remain saved.  2Tim.2:13

25.  Saving faith only requires a one-time act of faith towards the object of faith, Jesus Christ.

26.  How much faith is necessary is demonstrated in the parable of the mustard seed in Luk.13:19.

27.  It is the power of God that protects us contingent upon our faith in Christ.

28.  Once we cross that line, our soul has absolute protection as being benefactors of our inheritance to include any further manifestation of +V to Bible doctrine Ph2.  1Pet.1:9

29.  Believers have been ensured their admittance and participation into the kingdom of God as applied to His plan on earth (cp.Mat.21:43; Mar.1:15; 4:11, 26; Luk.8:1; et al) and heaven (cp.Mar.9:47; Luk.13:28,29; Joh.3:3,5; etc.)

30.  That we are protected beyond time into eternity is then made clear in the final phrase, “for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time”.

31.  The “deliverance/swthri,a – soteria” in view is the Rapture.

32.  For other use of this noun in this vein see Rom.13:11; 1The.5:9; Heb.9:28.

33.  The preposition “for/ei,j – eis” spatially means “into”.

34.  It indicates that the protection for the believer has as its goal the redemption of the body that will occur at the Rapture.  Cp.Eph.4:30

35.  The soul is safe throughout Ph2 and preserved in heaven (for those that die physically) awaiting its reunion with the glorified body.

36.  The body, unlike the soul, is subject to the ravages of time and circumstances.

37.  But it too will be redeemed and made forever safe when Christ returns for the Church.  Rom.8:23; Eph.1:14

38.  It is at the event of the Rapture that C/A believers will be presented before Christ at the Bema judgment.  Rom.14:10; 2Cor.5:10

39.  That all believers appear at the Bema will be proof of the eternal security God provided for their souls.

40.  It is then that the believers Ph2 works will be judged and the extent of their inheritance will be revealed.  1Cor.3:10-15

41.  This whole scenario is then said to be “ready to be revealed in the last time”.

42.  The adjective “ready/e;toimoj – etoimos” means something previously prepared, put in readiness.  Cp.Mat.22:4,8; 24:44; 25:10; 2Cor.9:5; 1Pet.3:15; etc.

43.  Just as our inheritance is waiting in reserve for us in heaven, so has God prepared before hand all that is necessary to unite our souls with resurrection bodies as recipient heirs.

44.  While the preparation is already taken care of, its manifestation will be revealed in the last time.

45.  This verse succinctly states that Believers “are being protected by the power of God though faith (man’s responsibility) for a deliverance (goal) ready (“off stage” so to speak) to be revealed (present but not yet visible) in the last time (Rapture generation).

46.  This is proof text for our eternal security.

47.  While God’s omnipotence is featured here, Rom.8:35-39 affirms the same promise keying off of the attribute of love.

48.  God is to be praised for the great things He has done and will do for us to bring us into our eternal inheritance.

49.  Review the Doctrine of Regeneration.

50.  Review the Doctrine of Resurrection.

51.  Review the Doctrine of SG3.

52.  Review the Doctrine of Eternal Security.





GNT 1 Peter 1:6 evn w-| avgallia/sqe( ovli,gon a;rti eiv de,on Îevsti.nÐ luphqe,ntej evn poiki,loij peirasmoi/j(


NAS 1 Peter 1:6 In this you greatly rejoice,  evn (pL)  w-| o[j ( or L/m/s; "in this thing/In which")  avgallia/sqe( avgallia,w (vi/p/m--2p/vImp/p/m--2p; "you greatly rejoice/you are extremely glad; used 11x; 3x in 1Pet.1:8; 4:13)   even though now for a little while, if necessary,  ovli,gon ovli,goj (adv.; "even though for a little while/briefly" +)  a;rti (adv.; "now")  eiv (part. 1st class.; "if"; "and it is")  de,on dei/ (suppl. ptc./p/a/nn-s +)  evsti.n eivmi ,(+vipa--3s; periphrastic;  "it being necessary")  you have been distressed by various trials,   luphqe,ntej lupe,w (concessive circ. ptc./a/p/nm2p; "although having been saddened/sorrow/grieved/distressed"; cognate of lupe - sorrow; used 26x; the concessive nature of the ptc. is captured in the words "even though")  evn (pI; "by")  poiki,loij poiki,loj (a--Im-p; "various/diverse"; used 10x)  peirasmoi/j( peirasmo,j (n-Im-p; "tests/trials"; same adj. and noun used in Jam.1:2; used 21x)


1.      Vs.6 begins a 3rd long sentence extending through vs.9.

2.      The 1st addressed the believer’s elect status (vss.1-2).

3.      The 2nd addressed the reality of their new birth and future promises associated with it (vss.3-5).

4.      Their regeneration teaches that a new spiritual life has been imparted to them via the human spirit.  Vs.3b

5.      That the hope of the new birth is living/alive is by virtue of Christ’s victory over death.  Vs.3c

6.      An inheritance is further associated with the new birth and hope and is in heaven, untouched by and beyond anything that belongs to the temporal realm.  Vs.4

7.      Their ultimate deliverance is “ready”, in God’s hand, but still invisible to the human eyes as it waits to be revealed.  Vs.5

8.      The believer’s hope, inheritance and deliverance zero in on future realities.

9.      Vss.3-5 portray triumph for the believer as a future expectation and goal.

10.  They provide pertinent doctrine that Peter wants his readers to initially contemplate.

11.  They underscore a primary focus the believer is to have pressing on in their Ph2.

12.  Peter, to this point, has yet to address any physical circumstances pertaining to himself or his readers.

13.  This is the force of vss.6-9 as they introduce the reality of their sufferings for their beliefs.

14.  These verses point to the fact that future triumph does not come without the tenacity to endure through the suffering of the CWL.

15.  The opening phrase “In this you greatly rejoice” sums up the natural response one would expect for God championing such a cause for believers noted in the previous sentence (vss.3-5).

16.  The relative pronoun “o[j/hos” in the phrase “In this” is best taken in the neuter gender and could be rendered “In this thing” or “In which”.

17.  It refers back in a general way to the content of praise in vss.3-5.

18.  The verb “greatly rejoice/avgallia,w – agalliao” means to be extremely glad or exult.

19.  It is middle voice indicating the response believers have within themselves (you yourselves”).

20.  The preceding doctrine should stir up this kind of emotion within the +V believer.

21.  While it could be translated as an imperative, it is best rendered in the indicative mood facilitating what would be expected with such magnificent promises.

22.  It would be sad if Peter had to command his readers to be happy in the face of these truths and realities.

23.  The present tense of the verb denotes that for the normal believer, contemplation of these things provides spontaneous inner joy.

24.  Peter is writing to believers that have been indoctrinated with respect to their “living hope”.

25.  He recognized their previous teaching of sound doctrine and intuitively understood the common reaction he could expect from the souls of +V believers.

26.  Ones confidence, hope and faith in the promises of salvation are that which bring about emotional exhilaration stabilizing the believer in spite of pressures in the CWL.

27.  Our emotions are responders to aspects of life and act as an indicator as to what we experience in the Christian walk.

28.  We are not to lead with our emotions, but their responses are inevitable.

29.  Obviously, if one is not focused on their eternal promises, a dour outlook in life can be expected when facing life’s tests.

30.  How we emotionally respond to doctrine is an indicator as to our orientation or maladjustment (righteous anger vs. sin anger, +H vs. sorrow, misplaced happiness, etc).

31.  Certain doctrinal realities are designed to instill extreme happiness to counteract the emotional sorrow that suffering in life may bring.  Mat.5:12; 1Pet.4:13 cp.Act.25-28

32.  The basis for rejoicing for the believer is grounded in the prospect of their SG3 inheritance (vss.3-5).

33.  Peter then makes the contrast to temporal life itself “even though now for a little while, if necessary, you have been distressed by various trials”.

34.  The expression “even though now for a little while” contrasts the relative brevity of suffering in comparison to “eternal glory”.  1Pet.5:10

35.  Peter is not saying that their Ph2 suffering is about over or of brief temporal duration.

36.  He is contrasting that the present ordeals of suffering in the Christian life are insignificant as compared to their eternal future of no suffering in Ph3.

37.  Paul expounds upon the same thought in Rom.8:18 and 2Cor.4:17.

38.  The phrase “if necessary/eiv dei/ - ei dei” is a 1st class condition indicating the reality of suffering is indeed necessary.

39.  The participial form of the verb emphasizes that sufferings are ongoing throughout the believer’s life.

40.  Paul had already instructed the churches in Galatia that “we must (dei)  through many sufferings enter the kingdom of God  Act.14:22

41.  Even Christ’s sufferings were of Divine necessity.  Cp. use of dei; Mar.8:31 w/parallels Luk.17:25; 24:7,26; Joh.3:14; 12:34; Act.17:3

42.  We should not expect to avoid the unpleasant experience that Jesus faced.  Joh.15:20

43.  Those that faithfully suffer for the cause of truth are assured that they will reign with Christ in the most illustrious fashion.  Rom.8:17; 2Cor.1:5; Phi.3:10; 1Pet.4:13

44.  This epistle is designed to instruct and encourage the Royal Family dispersed as aliens throughout northern Asia Minor with respect to the present ordeal of persecution.

45.  Suffering and persecution in particular is inevitable, indispensable and inescapable for those desiring to live under the godliness code of the royal imperatives considering the prevalence of –V in the world.  Joh.15:19; 1Joh.3:13

46.  Peter is fully aware that these believers had been targets of social oppression and hostility for some time.

47.  This is brought out in the aorist passive participle of “you have been distressed/lupe,w – lupeo”, which is the cognate of the noun “lu,ph – lupe/sorrow”.

48.  Living in Satan’s world while persevering in the faith brings opportunity upon opportunity by –V to respond in a hurtful way, directly and indirectly.

49.  The manner in which +V is treated from the reactions of negative STA’s brings soulish distress upon the believer.

50.  The assault upon the souls came into these believer’s lives “by various (poiki,loj – poikilos/diverse) trials (peirasmo,j – peirasmos/tests)”.

51.  The plethora of avenues that can bring about suffering is as many as possibilities of oppressions, harms and antagonisms that the world has to offer.

52.  Society at large resented these believers separation from pagan practices and mores.

53.  The nature of the STA reacts in a disconcerting way aiming to upset the one that holds to Divine viewpoint.  Cp.Rom.8:5-8; Jam.3:14-16

54.  -V retaliated with a variety of hurtful responses towards these believers.

55.  Often it took the form of aggressive verbal barking because the believer applied separation.  1Pet.4:4

56.  Otherwise it could come in the form of overt oppression economically, politically, physically and even religiously.

57.  To feel the pain of reprisal is not a sin in and of itself.

58.  However, it is important that believers view such things from a Scriptural perspective.

59.  It is during these times in life that the believer is to fall back on the promises of their potential inheritance to overcome their soulish distress.

60.  If SG3 is not a main ingredient for the believer’s motivation in life, they will be prone to wallow in self-misery.



GNT 1 Peter 1:7 i[na to. doki,mion u`mw/n th/j pi,stewj polutimo,teron crusi,ou tou/ avpollume,nou dia. puro.j de. dokimazome,nou( eu`reqh/| eivj e;painon kai. do,xan kai. timh.n evn avpokalu,yei VIhsou/ Cristou/\


NAS 1 Peter 1:7 that the proof of your faith,  i[na (cs; purpose; "in order that")  to,  doki,mion (d.a. + n-nn-s; "the proof/testing"; used 2x; Jam.1:3)  u`mw/n su, (npg-2p; "your"; ref. believers)  th/j h` pi,stewj pi,stij (d.a. + n-gf-s; "faith")   being more precious than gold which is perishable,   polutimo,teron polu,timoj (compara. adj./nn-s; "more costly than/more valuable than/more precious than"; used 3x; Mat.13:46; Joh.12:3)  crusi,ou crusi,on (n-gn-s; "gold")  tou/ o`  avpollume,nou avpo,llumi (d.a. controls preceding noun, this ptc. and following ptc. "tested"  + adj. ptc.//p/m/gn-s; lit. be ruined/be destroyed; "which itself is perishable")   even though tested by fire, may be found to result in praise and glory and honor  de, (cs; "even")   dokimazome,nou( dokima,zw (adj. ptc./p/p/gn-s; has a concessive sense; "though or when being tested/examined")  dia, (pAbl; "by")  puro.j pu/r (n-Abln-s; "fire")  eu`reqh/| eu`ri,skw (vsap--3s; "might be found")  eivj (pa; "to result into"; denotes the resulting status of "hina"  purpose clause beginning the verse)  e;painon e;painoj (n-am-s; "praise/approval/commendation/receive approbation or notoriety"; used 11x)  kai, (cc)  do,xan do,xa (n-af-s; "glory")  kai, (cc)  timh.n timh, (n-af-s; "honor/esteem")   at the revelation of Jesus Christ;  evn (pL of time; "at")  avpokalu,yei avpoka,luyij (n-Lf-s; "revelation/appearing")  VIhsou/ VIhsou/j Cristou/\ Cristo,j (both n-gm-s)


1.      Its one thing to know we will face testing and suffering in life and its necessity, but another to understand why.

2.      The continuation of our sentence in vs.7 tells us just that.

3.      The Divine purpose is expressed by the conjunction “i[na – hina” in the beginning phrase, “in order that the proof of your faith”.

4.      The main idea of thought then resumes in the potentially resulting nature in the final part of the verse, “may be found to result in praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ”.

5.      Together, the very idea of why testing is so indispensable is clearly revealed with first its purpose and then the potential of its ultimate result.

6.      The insertion between these two phrases, “being more precious than gold which is perishable, even though tested by fire,” is parenthetical.

7.      The comparative example to gold emphasizes the value put on faith itself.

8.      The concessive nature of testing by fire bridges the metaphorical with the reality.

9.      The exact Greek words “the proof of your faith/to. dokimion u`mw/n th/j pi,stewj – to dokimion humon tes pisteos” is found in Jam.1:3.

10.  James emphasizes the cause behind testing as producing patience in the Christian life for those that endure that in turn leads to maturity (Jam.1:4).

11.  Peter’s emphasis is on its purpose to define the character or quality of volition.

12.  The noun “proof/doki,mion – dokimion” means to “test for approval”.

13.  The “faith” in view is active faith as expression of will.

14.  It is an objective genitive and receives the action of the proving.

15.  That Peter is writing to believers under testing, the faith in view is more specifically Ph2 faith.

16.  The object of Ph2 faith is BD that requires its application.  Cp.Jam.2:17,26

17.  The opening phrase asserts that Ph2 +V is proved genuine by a process of testing.

18.  Without tests (adversity, pressure) in life, there would be no concrete evidence of what we ideologically believe.

19.  Tests are the proving ground that reveals the true character of +V.

20.  They reveal ones allegiance in the A/C.

21.  It is part of fighting the good fight.  2Tim.4:7

22.  Tests are a measure of one’s volition.

23.  People can give lip service all day long to BD, but until one is faced with a situation requiring application, their faith in doctrine remains untested.

24.  Peter is in total sync with James as both understood the importance of application to validate one’s faith.  Jam.2:14,18

25.  When one is tested, they are forced to apply, either good or bad (wrong or lack of application).

26.  Testing in the Christian life is necessary as it evidences who is +V embracing BD versus the façade of the –V believer opting for cosmic alternatives (hmvwpt under the STA).

27.  Obviously no one is perfect in their tests.  Jam.3:2

28.  Yet without them, we would have no real standard as to how much or less we are truly committed to BD.

29.  To the degree one is tested, to that degree the quality of +V is tested validating the character of their volition, as well as vice versa.

30.  Why we are tested is to prove our +V.

31.  Enter the parenthetical and metaphorical insert, “being more precious than gold which is perishable”.

32.  Peter draws upon the quality of gold to illustrate proven faith.

33.  First, genuine +V is more precious to God than gold since gold is perishable.

34.  Second, gold has something in common with faith in that it is “tested by fire”.

35.  Gold has been one of the most sought after metals throughout history.

36.  It is mentioned in Scripture over some 400x.

37.  It is valued so highly because of its warm beauty, endurance and pliable nature.

38.  It can withstand centuries of exposure to the elements without ever rusting (gold ornaments in excellent condition from the oldest of civilizations in museums today).

39.  It retains its beauty.

40.  It can be melted without harm and can be hammered to thin leaves, being extremely malleable (gold overlays).

41.  It is easily alloyed with other metals improving the degree of hardness while still retaining its beauty.

42.  Of the common acids, only aqua regia, a mixture of concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids, will dissolve it.

43.  These acids singularly are ineffective.

44.  Finally, gold is so highly prized because of its scarcity.  Isa.13:12

45.  Yet, even with its exceptional characteristics, the Bible affirms that it is susceptible to perishing.  Cf.1:18; Jam.5:3

46.  The concessive phrase “even though tested by fire” bridges the likeness to gold with the faith of the believer.

47.  When gold is introduced to the smelting fires, it comes out purer than before.

48.  When +V is subjected to the tests in life, the result is isolation of the STA producing Divine good production via application of BD.  Cp.Rev.3:18

49.  The end product of our testing by fire (SG3) is not subject to loss.  Cf.1Cor.3:13-15

50.  However, the road getting there (CWL) remains contingent upon the maintenance of +V in the face of testing.

51.  This is the idea of testing by fire that Peter has in mind here.  Cp.1Pet.4:12-13

52.  Peter extends the analogy of gold tested by fire metaphorically bridging the believer’s faith being proven by various tests.

53.  This grammatically reconnects with the idea of proving our +V producing its end result in the remainder of the verse, “may be found to result in praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ”.

54.  The subjunctive mood “may be found” indicates potential.

55.  There is no guarantee that believers under testing will remain faithful to God.

56.  This fact is amply recorded in the Bible that some will deny the faith when tested in the fires of adversity and persecution.  Cf.Mar.4:5-6 cp. vss.16,17

57.  To be found qualified as recipients of the following accolades is contingent upon remaining +V throughout life’s tests.

58.  Without testing in adversity, there is no tangible standard in witness to others as to one’s true allegiance to God (it remains a matter of hearsay or conjecture).

59.  In principle, Satan uses this argument to God regarding Job.  Job 1:10-11

60.  Jesus appeals to the same principle in Luk.6:31-35.

61.  Those that endure to the end of their Ph2 can look forward to “praise and glory and honor” upon Christ’s return.

62.  The preposition “eivj – eis” with the 3 accusative nouns indicates result.

63.  It points to the goal of +V to enter into this category of accolades.

64.  These 3 terms now implicitly suggest the notion of reward, specifically at the Bema Seat.

65.  It is at the reward ceremony that passing and failing grades will be handed out in the form of SG3 according to our works.  1Pet.1:17 cp.1Cor.3:14-15; 2Cor.5:10

66.  Praise, glory and honor” is Peter’s way of expressing the scene at the ceremony.  Cp.Rom.2:7

67.  Praise/e[painoj - epainos” emphasizes the adulation or approbation the +V believer will enjoy.

68.  Glory/do,xa – doxa” emphasizes the overt manifestation of their Ph2 success via SG3.

69.  Honor/timh, - time” emphasizes their exalting status among the ranks of believers.

70.   Praise” will come upon those that finished their course with honor, but censure will come to those that fall short (the difference between a short hand-clap and standing ovation).

71.  Glory” will come to all believers in varying degrees beginning with the basic package of resurrection escalating to the prize winners.

72.  Honor” will come to those that honored God, but for the rest there will be a moment of shame.  Cf.1Joh.2:28

73.  By honoring God under testing, believers will be honored by God.

74.  SG3 along with the wreath awaits all that are tested and endure in Ph2.

75.  And as with gold, the scarcity of +V of this quality among believers is extreme.  Cp.1Cor.9:24

76.  At the Bema, faith (cp. “the righteous will live by his faith”; Hab.2:4) gives way to vindication.

77.  Faith will be replaced by sight as to the realities of salvation.

78.  Those that deny the Lord, making peace with –V, will be denied reward.  Mat.10:33, 34-39; 2Tim.2:12,13

79.  Believers, like Peter, who fail particular tests (denial of Christ, Luk.22:34; Joh.18:25-27; episode in the Galatian church, Gal.2:11), can right themselves and go on to attain eternal distinction.

80.  This is a part of what he calls at the end of this letter, “the true grace of God” (5:12).

81.  God will and must make a distinction between those that are faithful under adversity and persecution and those that deny Him.

82.  The goal of maximum accolades is the telescopic focus of +V.

83.  Revelation” is one of the synonyms used for the Rapture.  Cf.1Cor.1:7; 1Pet.1:13; 4:13

84.  The 2 “whys” that testing is necessary is to provide +V with opportunity to prove itself and to provide a tangible standard for volition to evaluate itself while pressing on towards their eternal score.  Cp.Phi.3:12

85.  The Christian life is an open book test designed to facilitate those that are +V to handle life’s tests.

86.  For those that GAP this principle and endure, they will not be disappointed.




GNT 1 Peter 1:8 o]n ouvk ivdo,ntej avgapa/te( eivj o]n a;rti mh. o`rw/ntej pisteu,ontej de. avgallia/sqe cara/| avneklalh,tw| kai. dedoxasme,nh|


NAS 1 Peter 1:8 and though you have not seen Him,  o]n o[j (rel. pro./am-s; "whom"; ref. Christ; expressed through the pronouns "Him")  ouvk ouv (neg. +)  ivdo,ntej o`ra,w (concess. circ. ptc./a/a/nm2p; "although you are not seeing")  you love Him,  avgapa/te( avgapa,w (vipa--2p; "you keep on loving") and though you do not see Him now,   eivj (pa + )  o]n o[j (rel. pro./am-s; "with respect to whom/concerning whom"; expressed through pro. "Him")  mh, (neg. +)  o`rw/ntej o`ra,w (concess. circ. ptc./p/a/nm2p; "even though you are not seeing")  a;rti (adv.; "now/at the present moment")  but believe in Him,    de, (ch; "but/yet")  pisteu,ontej pisteu,w (temp. circ. ptc./p/a/nm2p; "you are still believing ["in" implied with the preposition eis]")  you greatly rejoice with joy inexpressible and full of glory,   avgallia/sqe avgallia,w (vipm--2p; "you yourselves are greatly rejoicing"; same as vs.6)  cara/| cara, (n-If-s; "with joy/happiness")  avneklalh,tw| avnekla,lhtoj (a--If-s; "unspeakable/inexpressible"; hapax)  kai, (cc)  dedoxasme,nh| doxa,zw (adj. ptc./PF/p/If-s; "glorious/full of glory")


GNT 1 Peter 1:9 komizo,menoi to. te,loj th/j pi,stewj Îu`mw/nÐ swthri,an yucw/nÅ


NAS 1 Peter 1:9 obtaining as the outcome of your faith the salvation of your souls.  komizo,menoi komi,zw (circ. ptc./p/m/nm2p; in the midd. voice; "while obtaining/receiving back"; used 10x, 9x in the midd.)  to, te,loj (d.a. + n-an-s; "the outcome/achievement/ summation")  u`mw/n su, (npg-2p)   th/j h`  pi,stewj pi,stij (d.a. + n-gf-s; "the faith")  swthri,an swthri,a (n-af-s; "salvation/deliverance"; acc. apposition to "to telos" = "outcome")  yucw/nÅ yuch, (n-gf-p; "of souls")


1.      Peter continues his train of thought as to +V enduring life’s sufferings.

2.      Ultimately it is their future goal to be recipients of all the praise, glory and honor the Bema has to offer (vs.7).

3.      However, the question remains as to present evidence of their faith that brings Peter to this conclusion.

4.      In vss.8-9, Peter now reveals why he concludes that their faith in the eternal promises is real.

5.      That is that they live a life based on faith (vs.8) progressing on towards Ph2 success (vs.9).

6.      These believers’ faith in the promises of doctrine was not just some pseudo-hope, but was a reality to them as seen in their approach to life itself.

7.      Obviously, faith is necessary to accept the eternal promises of salvation.

8.      It is a belief in things unseen.

9.      Living the Christian life demands a life of faith.  Rom.1:17; Heb.10:35-39

10.  As James makes clear, evidence of Ph2 faith is seen in one’s works.  Jam.2:14,18

11.  Peter uses the immediate personal experience of these believers to evidence that fact.

12.  7x in vss.8-9 he uses the 2nd person plural to catalogue their present experience to illustrate their +V.

13.  He begins with a duo of relative clauses, “and though you have not seen Him, you love Him, and though you do not see Him now, but believe in Him”.

14.  The concessive participles within each clause set up a paradox (irony of contrast).

15.  The first clause has two phrases; one relating to past time (aorist tense), the other relating to the present (present tense).

16.  The second clause emphasizes the present in both phrases.

17.  As the first clause stands, the implication is the contrast between Peter’s own eye-witness experiences of Christ, as to that of these Asian Christians.

18.  Peter’s faith had the benefit of a face-to-face experience with Jesus and His teaching.  Cp.2Pet.1:16-17

19.  Just as many in the early Apostolic Age so enjoyed.  Cp.1Joh.1:1-3

20.  Their face-to-face encounter provided added stimulus to their +V.

21.  This based on the numerous miracles and teachings of Jesus.  Cp.Joh.20:24-25

22.  When doubt reigned, physical evidence otherwise helped bring them to their senses.  Ex. Doubting Thomas; Joh.20:24-29

23.  However, of the majority of believers at the first and all of later generations, these had no visual experience of their Savior.

24.  This is the suggestion behind the first phrase looking back to the past, “and though you have not seen Him”.

25.  Though these believers had not ever laid eyes on their Lord, they still manifested +V as related in the contrasting phrase that they presently “love Him”.

26.  The “agapao love” in view recognizes their +V as the asset behind their love (this verb looks to the attributes of the one expressing love).

27.  Christ taught that the way this love works is by keeping His commandments.  Cp.Joh.14:15,21,23; 15:9-13

28.  It is the application of BD (royal imperatives) in FHS that is proof positive of one’s love for Christ.

29.  The present indicative of the verb agapao indicates this reality was an ongoing process for these believers.

30.  They were demonstrating their love for Christ as Peter wrote and sent this epistle.

31.  They had not caved to the pressures of severe persecutions and afflictions that beset them.

32.  Their fidelity to Christ was manifest in the way they were handling their tests, in spite of never having seen Him.

33.  Twice Peter uses the “seeing” participle “o`ra,w – horao” with the negative to indicate there was no occasion of physical presence with Christ.

34.  This verb has the idea of figuring something out based on tangible evidence.  Ex.Joh.20:8

35.  The emphasis of this 1st clause is that they had remained faithful to Christ in application of BD apart from any tangible sightings of Jesus as cause to initiate their ongoing love for Him.

36.  Tangible evidence of Christ was not necessary to bring their +V to the surface in expression of continued application.

37.  The present tense of the 2nd clause of not seeing is reinforced with the adverb “now/a;rti – arti”.

38.  This clause emphasizes that in addition to not having to have seen Jesus to initiate their +V, neither did they need any present spectacular inducements to keep them motivated.

39.  These believers were not privy to any special sightings or visions to encourage and reinforce their faithfulness.

40.  The present participle of the contrasting phrase “but believe in Him” highlights their continued faith in spite of lack of physical stimuli Christ’s personal presence might otherwise provide.

41.  Their belief (faith) is presented as continually exercised “into Him”.

42.  This is Peter’s way of stating that their +V had advanced from the initiation of Ph1 faith into Ph2.

43.  James uses the same concept of faith in his epistle to highlight the believer’s ongoing belief Ph2.  Cp.Jam.2:23

44.  It is an open declaration of their occupation with Christ.

45.  It carries the sense of faith-rest based on their doctrinal orientation.

46.  Truly, living the Christian life is a paradox.

47.  Normally we love and believe those we have seen and things we can tangibly substantiate.

48.  However, the +V believer puts all trust and hope into the reality of what BD declares as to who and what Christ is and what He represents.  Cp.1Cor.2:16

49.  And this without ever having seen Him or experiencing the physical manifestation of His life with our mortal eyes.

50.  These believers neither required, nor had any “crutches” of empirical evidence to initiate or keep their spirits high.

51.  They simply continued to put their faith and trust in the Lord and His promises.

52.  Peter is obviously recalling Christ’s own words regarding the blessedness imparted to +V in this vein.  Joh.20:29

53.  These believers, like subsequent generations, applied based on their +V and doctrine in their souls.

54.  The era of miracles and temporary gifts was largely phased out by the time Peter wrote to them.

55.  We should reject all claims of individuals that affirm that they have seen Jesus.

56.  Christ resides in the 3rd heaven and at this time cannot be seen.  1Tim.6:16

57.  Christ declared the evil of His generation as they insisted upon a “sign” to validate their beliefs in His Person.  Mat.12:39; 16:4

58.  Yet, the only “sign” He was willing to provide them was the teaching of BD as illustrated through Jonah to validate what empirical evidence otherwise provided.

59.  God consistently provides tangible evidence of the veracity of His word; yet the faith of +V precludes the necessity of physical evidence to otherwise believe.

60.  This is a rebuke to any believer that rejects BD and/or refuses to apply because they cannot otherwise see tangible evidence of its veracity.

61.  This is nothing more than practicing agnosticism (must see to believe; synonyms: skepticism, incredulity, non-belief, atheism).

62.  Because +V relies strictly on faith and not sight, they have a wonderful exhilaration of soul as part of their blessing in life, “you greatly rejoice with joy inexpressible and full of glory”.

63.  This is part of the perks for +V (doctrine within not relying on physical evidence).

64.  This verse contains 2 present indicatives: “you love Him” and “you greatly rejoice”.

65.  This parallel emphasizes that the continuous action of application of BD (agapao/love) and happiness in the face of extreme adversity go hand-in-hand.

66.  Jesus enjoined His disciples to have this kind of joy in the face of persecution.  Mat.5:12

67.  As vs.6 made clear, this joy is a reality in spite of our tests (same verb avgallia,w – agalliao).

68.  To face our sufferings and tests in life in occupation with Christ is reason to rejoice as it means we will share in His glory Ph3.  1Pet.1:13

69.  The stimuli for +H and exhilarating +H is BD in the soul.  Cp.Luk.1:47; 10:21; Joh.5:35; 8:56.

70.  By an ordinary assessment, their joy should be reserved for the future upon receipt of their SG3.

71.  But here, their extreme +H is for the present cushioning the plight of their sufferings.

72.  Another paradox of the +V believer contradicting the normal experience of men.

73.  It is a reality only indicative of the +V adjusted believer.

74.  One of the dynamics of the Spirit-filled life is an upbeat persona even under the severest onslaught of the enemy.

75.  The Christian hope is what enables +V to gladly (willingly) bear up under adversity.  Cp.Heb.10:32-36

76.  +H under these conditions is then described with two terms to denote its surpassing quality, “inexpressible and full of glory”.

77.  This kind of inner joy cannot be expressed by mere words, hence the term “inexpressible/avnekla,lhtoj – aneklaletos”.

78.  This joy is a self-experience only realized in orientation to BD.

79.  The 2nd term “full of glory/doxa,zw – doxazo” is an adjectival participle describing the nature of their joy and could simply be translated “glorious”.

80.  It emphasizes the application of BD as that which clothes their joy in manifestation.

81.  Continued application of BD is evidence of the exceptional +H they possess within.

82.  The experience of complete adjustment to the realities of doctrine when suffering reprisals for adherence to BD is nothing less than “glorious”.

83.  +V to BD is how the believer experiences a glorious life.

84.  Vs.9 finishes this long sentence begun in vs.6 by providing the results of occupation with Christ, “obtaining as the outcome of your faith the salvation of your souls”.

85.  The present middle participle “obtaining/komi,zw – komizo” means to receive back what one is owed.

86.  The middle voice indicates the action of obtaining is based on these believers continued fidelity to application of BD.

87.  It explains the paradoxical joy of enduring their suffering as it relates to its ultimate outcome for what they have accomplished in the CWL.

88.  This as it relates to being united with Christ in resurrection glory.

89.  That their Ph1 faith has blossomed into Ph2 faith, they are securing for themselves a path in the Christian life for a successful Ph2 that will reap the rewards at the Bema.

90.  That the description of SG3 is beyond tangible expression (1Cor.2:9), so we can liken the inexpressible joy associated with the +V believer on the glory road.

91.  Their joy emulates the confidence they have that they are doing it right!!

92.  The accusative noun “outcome/te,loj – telos” has the meaning of achievement and is a summation of +V applying BD in time.

93.  It is in apposition to the accusative noun “salvation/swthri,a – soteria” highlighting their achievement Ph2 is commensurate with their deliverance from loss of reward at the Bema.

94.  The term “salvation” means deliverance and has a range of meanings in the Bible:

A.    Temporal deliverance.  Heb.11:7; throughout Psalms

B.     Deliverance from spiritual death.  Rom.1:16; 10:1; Eph.1:13; 2Tim.3:15

C.     Deliverance at the Rapture.  Rom.13:11; 1The.5:9; Heb.9:28; 1Pet.1:5

D.    From loss at the Bema.  Phi.2:12; 1Tim.4:16

E.     From a spiritual fall.  2Cor.7:9,10; Jam.5:19-20

F.      In a broader sense of Ph1 and Ph2 realizing the Bema results.  2Tim.2:10

95.  Further, the genitive nouns “faith” and “souls” are in apposition to one another highlighting the parallel of volition residing in our souls.

96.  Again, faith is in reference to Ph2 faith.

97.  These appositional phrases “outcome of your faith” and “salvation of your souls” define each other denoting that +V Ph2 finds its ultimate deliverance in terms of SG3 reward for their +V.  See Doctrine of SG3

98.  The continued evidence that these believers faith was real is their perseverance of BD Ph2 that will then find its ultimate vindication Ph3 (Ph2 evidence of Ph3 focus).

99.  At the rapture, the soul will be united with a resurrection body and +V will be recompensed for faithfulness to the POG in time.  1Cor.3:15ff

100.          Occupation with Christ (adherence to MPR, application of doctrine and faith-rest in its promises) produces a spiritual momentum that is designed to carry the believer throughout their Ph2.

101.          The great joy of the believer in time enduring testing is parallel to staying the course having the confidence and expectation of a job well-done bestowed by Christ Himself.

102.          Consistency of Ph2 faith produces stability of +H and confidence of eternal reward (the emphasis of all the participles and present indicative verbs in these 2 vss).

103.          Review the Doctrine of Testing.





GNT 1 Peter 1:10 Peri. h-j swthri,aj evxezh,thsan kai. evxhrau,nhsan profh/tai oi` peri. th/j eivj u`ma/j ca,ritoj profhteu,santej(


NAS 1 Peter 1:10 As to this salvation,  Peri. peri, (pg; As to/Concerning")  h-j o[j (rel. pro./gf-s; "this/which")  swthri,aj swthri,a (n-gf-s; "salvation/deliverance")    the prophets who prophesied of the grace that would come to you  profh/tai profh,thj (n-nm-p; "prophets")  oi` o` (d.a./nmp; governs both noun and participle)  profhteu,santej( profhteu,w (adj. ptc./a/a/nm-p; "who had prophesied")  th/j h` ca,ritoj ca,rij (d.a. + n-gf-s; "of the grace")  peri, (pg; "that would come/concerning or with respect to/meant for)  eivj (pa; "to/for")  u`ma/j su, (npa-2p; ref. the present believers)  made careful search and inquiry,   evxezh,thsan evkzhte,w (viaa--3p; "sought out/made careful search"; used 7x)  kai, (cc)  evxhrau,nhsan evxerauna,w (viaa--3p; "carefully inquired/sought diligently or intently"; it denotes a thorough investigation; used 1x) 


GNT 1 Peter 1:11 evraunw/ntej eivj ti,na h' poi/on kairo.n evdh,lou to. evn auvtoi/j pneu/ma Cristou/ promarturo,menon ta. eivj Cristo.n paqh,mata kai. ta.j meta. tau/ta do,xajÅ


NAS 1 Peter 1:11 (Corrected) seeking to know evraunw/ntej evrauna,w (circ. ptc./p/a/nm-p; "while thoroughly examining/seeking to know"; used 6x)  what or what sort of time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating eivj (pa; "for”; not in NAS)  ti,na ti,j (interr. Adj./am-s; “what”)  h; (cc; “or”)  poi/on poi/oj (interr. Adj./am-s; “what sort of or kind of”)  kairo.n kairo,j (n-am-s; “time/season”)  to, pneu/ma (d.a. governs noun and ptc. + n-nn-s; “the Spirit”; ref. H.S.)  Cristou/ Cristo,j (n-gm-s)  evn (Pl; “in/within”)  auvtoi/j auvto,j (npdm3p; “them”; ref. the prophets)   evdh,lou dhlo,w (viIPFa—3s; “was indicating”; used 7x)   as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow.   Promarturo,menon promartu,romai (adj. ptc./p/m/nn-s; “Himself predicting/witnessing beforehand”; ref. the H.S.; used 1x)  ta. To, paqh,mata pa,qhma (d.a. + n-an-p; “the sufferings”; used 16x; 4x in 1Pet.1:11; 4:13; 5:1,9)  eivj (pa; “of”)  Cristo.n Cristo,j (n-am-s)  kai, (cc)  ta.j h` do,xajÅ do,xa (d.a. + n-af-p; “the glories”) meta, (pa; “after”)  tau/ta ou-toj (dem. Pro./an-p; “these things”; hence, “to follow”) 



GNT 1 Peter 1:12 oi-j avpekalu,fqh o[ti ouvc e`autoi/j u`mi/n de. dihko,noun auvta,( a] nu/n avnhgge,lh u`mi/n dia. tw/n euvaggelisame,nwn u`ma/j ÎevnÐ pneu,mati a`gi,w| avpostale,nti avpV ouvranou/( eivj a] evpiqumou/sin a;ggeloi paraku,yaiÅ


NAS 1 Peter 1:12 It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves, but you, avpekalu,fqh avpokalu,ptw (viap--3s; "it had been revealed/disclosed/made known"; same as 1:5)  oi-j o[j (rel. pro. /dm-p; "to whom/to them")  o[ti (cc; "that"; intro. that revealed to the prophets)  ouvc ouv (neg. +)   dihko,noun diakone,w (viIPFa--3p; "they were not serving)  e`autoi/j e`autou/ (reflex. pro./dm3p; "themselves")  de, (ch)  u`mi/n su, (npd-2p; ref. Peter's audience)  in these things which now have been announced to you   auvta,( auvto,j (npan3p; "according to these things/in these things")  a] o[j (rel. pro./nn-p; "which things")  nu/n (adv.; "now/at the present")  avnhgge,lh avnagge,llw (viap--3s; "have been announced/proclaimed")  u`mi/n su, (npd-2p; "to you")  through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven--   dia, (pAbl; "through/by")  tw/n o` euvaggelisame,nwn euvaggeli,zw (d.a. + subs. ptc./a/m/Ablm-p; "those evangelizing/those who preached the gospel")  u`ma/j su, (npa-2p)  evn (pI; "by")  a`gi,w| a[gioj (a--In-s; "Holy")  pneu,mati pneu/ma (n-In-s; "Spirit")   avpostale,nti avposte,llw (adj. ptc./a/p/In-s; "having been sent [with authority]")  avpV avpo, (pAbl)  ouvranou/( ouvrano,j (n-gm-s; "heaven")  things into which angels long to look.  eivj (pa +)  a] o[j (rel. pro./an-p; "things into which")  a;ggeloi a;ggeloj (n-nm-p; "angels")  evpiqumou/sin evpiqume,w (vipa--3p; "keep on earnestly desiring/longing for)  paraku,yaiÅ paraku,ptw (suppl. inf./aa; lit. "stoop to see"; "to look intently into"; used 5x)


1.      Vss.10-12 begins a new paragraph in the Greek text.

2.      Peter introduces a new thought, while drawing upon the previous context.

3.      This is incorporated into the opening phrase, “As to this salvation”.

4.      The salvation in view harks back to Ph2 deliverance ending vs.9 resulting in their Ph3 deliverance at the Bema (vs.5).  (The only 2x soteria is used in the preceding vss.)

5.      Peter’s emphasis of addressing these believers so far in this epistle has been delivered in a most upbeat way as a matter of commendation.

6.      All that he has expressed has been designed to reinforce that they are doing it right.

7.      These Christians evidence a flourishing of +V in Asia Minor in the 1st Century AD.

8.      The evidence of their +V is seen in living a life of faith maintaining spiritual advance in spite of the testing and suffering experienced in the CWL (vss6-9).

9.      Vss.10-12 caps off this encouragement highlighting the grace they have been afforded to serve God in this capacity.

10.  Specifically, as it applies to the present time of the CA dispensation.

11.  This to reinforce the fact that +V serving God in the CA is not a matter of superiority of persons, but a privilege based on grace.

12.  They are not to let Peter’s accolades go to their head, but retain the true humility characterizing +V.

13.  Paul exhorted the Roman Christians in this vein.  Rom.11:17-24

14.  Peter’s approach is by highlighting the OT prophetic inquiry into this new age of grace, “the prophets who prophesied of the grace that would come to you made careful search and inquiry”.

15.  The “grace” in view further defines the “salvation” in view.

16.  It looks to all that God has provided for believers in the CA to fulfill the POG in their lives Ph2 and the privileges they enjoy in eternal association with Christ Ph3.

17.  It emphasizes the special status of believers in this dispensation as the grafted “wild olive branch (the Church)” into the domesticated “olive tree (Israel)” in Paul’s analogy.  Cp.Rom.11:17

18.  For Centuries, the Gentiles spurned God corporately.

19.  However, Israel’s reversionism and national discipline for rejection of their Messiah at the 1st Advent opened the doors for Gentiles to replace Israel administratively (dispensationally).  Cp.Eph.1:9-10

20.  God’s plan of Grace has always called upon the inclusion of Church Age to complete the revelation of His plan through Christ.  Eph.3:9-12

21.  The phrase “the prophets who prophesied” is all inclusive and used in a general way.

22.  It’s a mistake to think Peter is only referring to prophets that received direct Divine revelation or limited to those that penned the written text.

23.  A prophet could function in both an active or passive sense.

24.  Some prophets were instrumental in penning the text or providing other direct revelation (active).

25.  Yet the function of a prophet was not limited in this way and could be instrumental to the prophetic text as to its interpretation and teaching to others (passive).  Ex. Christ as a prophet referencing OT prophecy, Mar.12:10; John the Baptist reference to OT prophesy, Joh.1:23

26.  The one definite article that governs both noun and participle enjoins these prophets with their prophecies as a singular group of believers in their communication.

27.  It alludes to all prophets of the OT that had prophetic authority to otherwise teach God’s word to others.

28.  These OT prophets understood that Israel would be temporarily laid aside and that the dispensation would be given to a new nation.  Deu.32:21; Isa.65:1; Hos.2:23 cp. Rom.9:25; 10:19-20

29.  Further, they knew the nation would be from among the Gentiles.  Isa.42:1-4 cp. Mat.12:17-21; Act.15:14-18 esp. vss.14-15

30.  This is how the OT prophets knew “of the grace that would come to you”.

31.  However, beyond this revelation, any further clear information concerning the particulars of this “nation” is omitted in the OT.

32.  Still, with only this sparse knowledge, these prophets made careful search and inquiry.

33.  The verb “made careful search/evkzate,w – ekzateo” means “to carefully search out” or to “scrutinize” and is used 7x.

34.  In 2 of its uses it is translated “to seek” highlighting the actions of +V.  Act.15:7; Heb.11:6

35.  This verb indicates that +V (a.k.a. seekers) are those that seek the truth of BD in a desire to know and understand God’s plan.

36.  The next verb “inquire/evxerauvna,w – exeraunao” means to “intently or diligently inquire” as in a thorough investigation.

37.  They are likened to forensic experts willing to look at all aspects of a situation to glean any information that may relate to an investigation.

38.  Both verbs are placed forward in the Greek to emphasize the fastidious due diligence employed.

39.  These exegetes of the OT zealously dug for any pearls of information they could find giving additional insight into this coming dispensation.

40.  They are examples of +V that has a desire to know as much as possible with respect to God’s plan, even in future prophetic events.

41.  We can deduce it is the CA in view based on the parameters of their studies related in vs.11, “seeking to know what or what sort of time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow”.

42.  The object of their investigating, as we have inferred, was the OT written text.

43.  Peter uses language referencing the ultimate author of Scripture with the words, “…the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating as He predicted…” as substitute of reference to the text.

44.  The title “Spirit of Christ” is reference to the Holy Spirit also used in Rom.8:9.

45.  The title is apropos here as the inquiry centers on the Person of Christ.

46.  The Scripture is the written revelation of Christ who is Ho Logos (the Word).  Joh.1:1 cp.vs.14

47.  Jesus is the fulfillment of the OT text i.e., the Law and the Prophets.  Mat.5:17

48.  It is part of the H.S.’s function to reveal Christ to mankind by enlightening them to the truth of BD.  Joh.14:26; 15:26

49.  This title is only one of multiple references to the H.S. to include:

A.    The Spirit.  Mat.4:1; Rom.8:23; etc.

B.     The Spirit of God.  Gen.1:2; Exo.31:3; 1Joh.4:2

C.     The Holy Spirit.  Psa.51:11; Isa.63:10; Rom.5:5; 1Pet.1:12; 2Pet.1:21

D.    The Spirit of Truth.  Joh.14:17; 15:26; 16:13

E.     The Spirit of Jesus.  Act.16:7; Phi.1:19

F.      The Spirit of Holiness.  Rom.1:4

G.    The Spirit of Life.  Rom.8:2

H.    The Helper/Comforter.  Joh.14:26; 15:26; 16:7

I.       The Eternal Spirit.  Heb.9:14

J.       The Spirit of Grace.  Heb.10:29

K.    The Spirit of Glory.  1Pet.4:14

L.     The Holy One.  1Joh.2:20

50.  There is no true prophecy from God apart from the H.S.  2Pet.1:21

51.  The H.S. made the OT prophesies clear, as well as whatever direct revelation was given to a particular prophet.

52.  He superintended all of the authors of Scripture to ensure a perfect revelation of God’s plan was penned according to God’s purpose (verbal plenary inspiration).

53.  The phrase “within them” looks to the filling ministry of the H.S.  Exo.31:3; 35:31; Deu.34:9; etc.

54.  Being in FHS paralleled their drive and understanding of inquiry.

55.  What the H.S. was indicating was the reality of this parenthetical nation as He prophetically predicted events of the 1st and 2nd Advents otherwise revealed in the OT.

56.  The participle “seeking to know/evrauna,w – eraunao” in all of its 5 other uses in the NAS is translated “search”.  Joh.5:39; 7:52; Rom.8:27; 1Cor.2:10; Rev.2:23

57.  The 3 “study” verbs together (search, inquiry, seek) validates that the prophets in view sought from information already revealed (passive prophesying).

58.  It denotes that OT students did not tire from continually researching what God’s word might have had to say additionally on the matter.

59.  Further, it implies an on-going compilation of research done during the period of the formation of the OT canon

60.  Certainly, the more OT books at one’s disposal, the better chance of new revelation concerning the matter.

61.  The parameters of their study is then stated two-fold in the 2 phrases:

A.    What or what sort of time

B.     …the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow.

62.  The first relates to parameters revolving around time (the CA), the second to the available information at their disposal.

63.  The NAS translation “what person” is an attempt to interpret rather than translate.

64.  There are two interrogative adjectives “what/ti,j – tis” and “what sort of/poi/oj – poios” (both ac/m/s) that modify the noun “time/kairo,j – kairos” (ac/m/s).

65.  Both interrogatives are governed by the preceding preposition “ei,j – eis/for/into”.

66.  The idea is a distinction of time that relates to its duration (beginning to end) and the particulars that characterize the time in view (what the H.S. was indicating).

67.  The secondary phrase, “the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow” indicates the parameters of revelation that these students had to draw upon in the OT (what the H.S. predicted).

68.  The OT is replete with the fact that their Messiah would suffer at the 1st Advent with emphasis on the cross.  Ex.Isa.53 (the sufferings of Christ).

69.  Further, it has ample prophecy describing the 2nd Advent filling in with details of the Messiah’s glorious and eternal reign over Israel during the Millennium and into the Eternal State (and the glories to follow).  Ex. Book of Ezekiel, Minor Prophets, etc.

70.  Through the prophecy of Daniel’s 70 weeks, the Jews knew that Messiah would be cut off for a period of time (Israel would be judged and dispersed) and that there would be 7 more years of history for the Age of Israel to be completed before the beginning of the Millennium.  Dan.9:26

71.  It is this parenthetical period of time between Daniel’s 69th and 70th week with its duration, administrative particulars and future eternal input this would produce that these fervently desired to know.

72.  That their research included beyond simply the duration of the historical time of the CA into the future is inferred in the phrase “the glories to follow”.

73.  It indicates all the prophecies of Jesus’ resurrected glorification taking Israel into His eternal reign for written material to draw upon to also look for any clues available.

74.  The OT witness to His resurrected glory was so clear and unequivocal that Jesus rebuked believers that doubted the resurrection.  Luk.24:25-26

75.  These OT saints longed to know the details of the Church and function of CA believers in the POG.

76.  Particularly the salvation of grace as it would be applied.

77.  OT students knew that their salvation Ph1 would be by faith, as it remains the same throughout history.  Gen.15:6 cf.Rom.4:3; 3:9 cp.Hab.2:4

78.  Hence, why Peter does not directly address that issue.

79.  However, the particulars of the Church’s administrative service to God and pertinent grace accompanying it were their quest.

80.  This would include but not limited to:

A.    How soon after Christ’s crucifixion, resurrection and ascension before the new dispensation would begin.

B.     Its duration in history and timing of reinstating the Age of Israel (beginning Daniel’s 70th week).

C.     That this new nation would be made up of many nations, Jews and Gentiles alike.

D.    The particulars of its administrative functions such as:

1)      Individual priesthoods.

2)      Royal priests in association with Christ.

3)      The nation (Church) forms a “body of Christ” (Depicted both Universally and Locally).

4)      The indwelling ministry of the H.S. on behalf of all believers.

5)      The ordination of CA rituals (water baptism and communion).

6)      Spiritual gifts for all believers.

7)      All of the royal imperatives as they pertain to the function of the Church and individual believers.

E.     Details of C/A believers’ resurrection.

F.      This new nation’s impact in the Millennium and Eternal State in conjunction with Israel.

81.  Of these things, the OT is silent.

82.  They were not revealed until Christ’s ministry and through the NT prophets and apostles.  (Christ first spoke of the Church [Mat.16:18; 18:17] and told of the H.S.’s new indwelling role [Joh.14:17])

83.  Paul labeled this a mystery doctrine hidden until it was revealed to him and others.  Rom.16:25 cf.11:25; Eph.1:9-10; 3:3,4,9; 5:32; Col.1:26-27

84.  While one may conclude a waste of time pursuing study of the Bible with things not specifically revealed (though until it was researched, who could know?), vs.12 takes issue with that mentality.

85.  While particulars were not ascertained, God still honored their studious drive with practical insight and spiritual advance as “It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves, but you (the new dispensation)”.

86.  What was revealed to these +V students was that their own dispensation was preparatory in serving the new.

87.  This also two-fold as they were the dispensation to usher in the 1st Advent providing Messiah making possible all the glories to follow and that the new dispensation would benefit from their writings (OT text).

88.  It was +V of their ilk that propelled the truth of God’s plan in application and understanding that would hand off to the next dispensation of +V to include fidelity in penning of the OT text.

89.  The NT without the background of the OT would be rendered empty and without validation (witness).

90.  In this sense, they understood their own time in history in the POG as not being self-serving, but for the benefit of future +V.

91.  Again, humility is the true character of +V in any dispensation.

92.  These prophetic students took their studies to the limits, but did not speculate in the absence of Scriptural support.

93.  They simply came to the conclusion that they were supporting the truth that provided the link for those that followed to aptly discern the truth in their new dispensation.

94.  This is the emphasis of the pronominal phrase, “in these things which now have been announced to you”.

95.  The phrase “in these things” looks to all of the new doctrine that has been revealed to CA saints (now compiled in the NT).

96.  Through progressive revelation (new doctrine revealed in history), God’s plan has been announced to present day believers finding the depth of its understanding based on the OT text supported by the +V of adjusted OT saints.

97.  The agents to reveal the new revelation are next stipulated as, “through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven –“.

98.  The substantival participle “those who preached the gospel/o` euvaggeli,zw – ho euangelizo” literally means “one proclaiming good news”.  Cp.Luk.1:10; 2:10

99.  The “good news” in view is all the doctrine defining the reality of the new CA dispensation.

100.          Standing upon the Ph1 gospel, it harks to Ph2 gospel that includes Ph3 ramifications.

101.          It is NT doctrine designed to fill in the parenthetical time in lieu of Israel’s judgment completing the summing up of all things in Christ.  Eph.1:10

102.          It is the link of information filling in the voided gap the OT prophets so intently desired to know and realized to that which they were linked.

103.          And it is by the same Holy Spirit that lead the OT prophets in their zealous search that CA communicators (prophets/apostles, P-T’s, etc.) have been empowered with in revealing CA doctrine as presently compiled into the NT text.

104.          The phrase “sent from heaven” is a distinct time marker by which this new revelation formally began.

105.          Peter harks back to Christ’s teaching of the new indwelling ministry of the H.S. whom He would “send” (Joh.14:17 cf.14:26; 15:26) that would characterize the beginning of the CA dispensation (cf. upper room; Act.2:1-4).

106.          Beginning with the Day of Pentecost (Sun. May 24, 33 AD), new revelation concerning the Church began to flow.

107.          Peter was not only there on that occasion, he was instrumental in the conversion of some 3000 souls immediately introducing them to water baptism (Ph2 doctrine).  Act.2:41

108.          Peter then finishes by highlighting the gravity of importance regarding the revelation now revealed to the Church in the finality of vs.12, “things into which angels long to look”.

109.          The angels in view refer to the elect angels.

110.          It highlights the doctrine of the Importance of Bible Doctrine as it extends even to these majestic creatures that reside with God in the 3rd heaven providing service to Him on behalf of the elect saints on earth.  Heb.1:14

111.          The phrase “long to look” is a combination of the verb “evpiqume,w – epithumeo/ earnestly desiring or longing for” followed with the infinitive “paraku,ptw – parakupto/looking intently”.

112.          The literal meaning of the infinitive parakupto means “stoop to look”.  Cf.Luk.24:12; Joh.20:5,11

113.          It envisions these angelic creatures looking down upon man with great interest.

114.          The thrust of Peter’s statement insinuates that angels, for all their knowledge, further learn BD as God reveals His plan to man.

115.          Their devotion to God is evidenced by their intense desire to hear and understand Scripture.

116.          As example, when God first revealed the mystery doctrine of the Church, such as through Paul, the elect angels eagerly assimilated the information.

117.          We learn from this statement something about the personality and character of angels.

118.          They are keen and eager observers of the POG and of the accurate communication of Scripture in particular.  1Tim.3:16

119.          In our dispensation, with the completed canon of Scripture, they receive instruction from the body of Christ.  Eph.3:10

120.          The implementation of CA doctrine was and is a special area of interest for the angels.

121.          They too had to wait until God made the mystery doctrine available.

122.          They had no prior insight with respect to the special and privileged dispensation now long in progress.

123.          The application from this statement that Peter wishes to impress upon his readers is indeed how much grace CA believers have been afforded in the revelation of God’s plan.

124.          Without the provision and understanding of BD, grace is diminished.

125.          To the depth and extent of revealed fullness, grace is increased.

126.          God’s grace was drastically increased with the NT canon of Scripture.

127.          Peter’s final statement epitomizes the nature of a righteous soul in desire to understand as much as possible the POG.

128.          This not limited to just enough to get by for any one dispensation, but the totality of that which is made available.

129.          A mark of true +V as ultimately characterized by the holy angels is an intense desire to explore and understand the content of the Scriptures to the degree and time made possible in history.

130.          3 “searching” verbs were used to emphasize this regarding +V OT saints (careful search, inquiry and seeking).

131.          The Bereans of Act.17:10-12 are examples of the mark of +V in the CA.

132.          Those that fail to exploit God’s grace in provision of BD by dismissing the importance of MPR, having a cavalier attitude in its hearing or less than concentrated effort to understand it rob themselves of God’s grace.

133.          Expression of faith is stymied by disinterest in the truth.

134.          You can’t be +V Ph2 and maintain a lackadaisical or superficial interest in BD.

135.          To that degree you affect your Ph3 salvation.

136.          Review the Doctrine of the Importance of Bible Doctrine.








GNT 1 Peter 1:13 Dio. avnazwsa,menoi ta.j ovsfu,aj th/j dianoi,aj u`mw/n nh,fontej telei,wj evlpi,sate evpi. th.n ferome,nhn u`mi/n ca,rin evn avpokalu,yei VIhsou/ Cristou/Å


NAS 1 Peter 1:13 Therefore, gird your minds for action,  Dio. dio, (infer. conj.; "Therefore/For this reason")  avnazwsa,menoi avnazw,nnumi (circ.ptc./a/m/nm2p; lit. "tie up at the waist"; "you yourselves gird/bind up"; the  ptc has  imperatival force; used 1x in NT.)  ta.j h` ovsfu,aj ovsfu/j (d.a. + n-af-p; lit. part of the body over which a belt of skin or cloth is worn; "waist"; "loins or reproductive organs for the male"; used 8x; idiomatically means "to prepare oneself/be dressed in readiness/get ready" Luk.12:35; Eph.6:14)  u`mw/n su, (npg-2p +) th/j h` dianoi,aj dia,noia (d.a. + n-gf-s; "of your mind/understanding/intellect/thoughts"; used 12x; the entire phrase is metaphorical to "dress your mind in mental preparedness for action")   keep sober in spirit,  nh,fontej nh,fw (circ.ptc. [with imperatival force/p/a/nm2p; "while keeping sober/maintaining sobriety"; used 6x and only fig. or spiritually; "to not imbibe in that which would impair or dull  one's concentration, thoughts or actions; 1The.5:6,8; 2Tim.4:5; 1Pet.4:7; 5:8)  fix your hope completely evlpi,sate evlpi,zw (vImp/aa--2p; "hope in/trust in/have confidence in"; hence "fix your hope")  telei,wj (adv.; "completely")  on the grace to be brought to you  evpi, (pa; "concerning/on")  th.n h` ca,rin ca,rij (d.a. [governs both noun and ptc.] + n-af-s; "the grace")  ferome,nhn fe,rw (adj. ptc./p/p/af-s; "being brought")  u`mi/n su, (npd-2p; "to you all")  at the revelation of Jesus Christ.  evn (pL of time; "at")  avpokalu,yei avpoka,luyij (n-If-s; "the revelation"; ref. to the rapture as used in the only other 2 uses in Peter, 1Pet1:7; 4:13")  VIhsou/ VIhsou/j (n-gm-s)  Cristou/Å Cristo,j (n-gm-s;)


1.      Vs.13 begins the exhortative segment of the epistle that will be maintained to its end.

2.      The inferential conjunction “Therefore/dio, - dio” is a springboard to begin the instructive process appealing to the preceding context.

3.      It has been Peter’s style to build upon previous doctrine with additional doctrine.

4.      Vss.10-12 succinctly stated that their Ph2 & 3 salvation is a privileged status based on grace.

5.      In Peter’s own way, he expressed the Doctrine of the Importance of BD as that which is tantamount to enjoying grace in its fullest with its pursuit in understanding a mark of +V.

6.      This as epitomized by the elect angels’ own desire to hear and understand doctrine as it is revealed.

7.      The force of the conjunction “Therefore” is designed to appeal to these believers sense of gratitude for BD made available to them.

8.      It relates to the character of +V as having a consistent desire to know and understand BD as much as possible not taking it for granted.

9.      The culmination of +V seen in the OT prophets and the elect angels as examples are designed to motivate +V in the Church to the same level of zeal.

10.  It infers the responsibility of CA saints to continue to carry the torch in their own seeking and understanding of God’s word.

11.  Only by maintaining zeal in its pursuit will believers ultimately experience all the grace that God has provided for them.

12.  And only by being preoccupied with BD will the believer have confidence in the “living hope” (vs.3) that characterizes their salvation.

13.  With this background, Peter addresses that which is necessary to sustain their zeal and occupation with BD.

14.  In vss.13-22, Peter issues 7 commands along this line:

A.    Gird your minds.  Vs.13

B.     Keep sober in spirit.  Vs.13

C.     Fix your hope completely on SG3.  Vs.13

D.    Do not be conformed to the rulership of the STA.  Vs.14

E.     Be holy in all your behavior.  Vs.15

F.      Live in righteous fear.  Vs.17

G.    Fervently love one another.  Vs.22

15.  As with all royal imperatives in the NT, they instruct the believer as to God’s directive will for their lives and sets a course for the churches to follow.

16.  The first directive “gird your minds for action” highlights the believer’s mental attitude as a primary issue behind all of the directives.

17.  Maintaining the proper attitude in the CWL is essential to maintaining focus towards success.

18.  All that we say and do and towards which we strive starts in our thinking processes.

19.  If our thinking is not in line with BD, neither will be our lives.

20.  The imperative is the force behind the aorist participle “gird/avnazw,nnumi - anazonnumi” and means to “bind up/tie up”.

21.  In the Greek, the participle is followed by the noun for “waist or loins/ovsfu/j – osphus”.

22.  To “gird the waist/loins” has as its background the ancient custom of pulling up one’s robes and tying them at the waist so as to engage in action unencumbered.

23.  That the girding is metaphorical is quite clear as it is to be done to their “minds/dia,noia – dianoia” referring to ones thoughts or intellect.

24.  This Hebrew idiom indicates that one is to keep their thinking in constant readiness for action.

25.  A similar expression occurs in Luk.12:35, “Be dressed in readiness (lit. “gird about your loins/ovsfu/j perizw,nnumi – osphus perizonnumi”).

26.  Paul uses this idiom in Eph.6:14, “Stand firm therefore, having girded your loins with truth…

27.  It is in the same sense as Paul that Peter is now expressing.

28.  How one prepares their thinking for action with honor in the A/C is through the intake of BD.

29.  The act of “girding” includes using a belt or cloth to tie up the robe in said fashion.

30.  This portrays BD as that which fastens to our thinking righteousness and faithfulness as that which governs our lives.  Cp.Isa.11:5 cf. Psa.40:10

31.  As the idiom further infers, the believer is to be in constant readiness by not allowing one’s self to be encumbered by anything that would impede the intake of BD.

32.  To “gird your minds for action” demands establishing one’s assembly in Bible class as their MPR (Most Pressing Responsibility).  Cp.Heb.10:25

33.  The Divine viewpoint (BD) is the only way the believer can reprogram their own minds with the mind of Christ being in constant preparedness to face the adversity and temptation in the world.  Rom.15:5; 1Cor.2:16

34.  It is the repetitious regiment of Bible class that protects the believer from being conformed to this world.  Rom.12:2

35.  Failure for the believer to maintain this focus in the CWL dooms them to failure in all other of the commands that Peter will issue.

36.  This command is listed first as it is the number 1 priority for all believers.

37.  It is then supported by the second present participle with imperatival force translated “keep sober in spirit”.

38.  The participial verb “keep sober/nh,fw – nepho” is used 5 other times in the NT.  1The.5:6,8; 2Tim.4:5; 1Pet.4:7; 5:8

39.  In all other uses it is metaphorical for spiritual sobriety as captured by the NAS in our verse with the words “in spirit”.

40.  The present tense of the participle following the aorist participle “gird” indicates an action that would follow coinciding with the previous mandate.

41.  It has the idea that “after they gird the loins of their minds for action (with BD)”, they are to “keep on being sober”.

42.  Spiritual sobriety naturally follows the intake of BD.

43.  Both involve conscious effort and self-discipline.

44.  Keeping sober has as its background man’s propensity to abuse alcohol.

45.  –V is always inebriated.  1The.5:6-8

46.  Paul equates the drunkenness of –V to darkness representing all of the STA human viewpoint influence they adhere too.

47.  BD is what keeps us sober further illustrated by the light of day in 1The.5:8.

48.  When we are under the influence of the STA and human viewpoint we are drunk.

49.  Degrees of spiritual inebriation vary according to the activity and to the extent (incidental vs. perpetual).

50.  To keep sober basically is a command to avoid allowing the cosmic antithesis to BD dull our spiritual senses.

51.  It is the difference between possessing the “good conscience” with the norms and standards of BD (1Tim.1:5,19; 1Pet.3:16) and a conscience uninhibited by BD.

52.  It is tantamount to staying under FHS denying the influence of the STA and human viewpoint to govern our decisions.  Cf.Eph.5:18

53.  Prayer is important in keeping ourselves from things that would otherwise render us as spiritual drunks.  1Pet.4:7

54.  Failure to stay sober makes us easy targets for the schemes of the enemy.  1Pet.5:8

55.  Maintaining spiritual sobriety is essential to fulfilling one’s ministry before God.  2Tim.4:5

56.  Believers are to always keep the directive will of God before them.

57.  It demands that we exercise self-control, discernment and clarity of mind.

58.  One step outside the circle of FHS we lose sobriety.

59.  Certain sins, human viewpoint and activities are especially harmful.

60.  Pursuit of STA lusts renders the individual a drunk.

61.  The consequences of perpetual spiritual drunkenness are akin to what happens to an addict.

62.  The reversionist is a spiritual alcoholic.

63.  Drunkenness in the physical realm leads to irresponsibility and loss.

64.  So in the spiritual analogy the failure to apply BD results in loss.

65.  To be obsessed or preoccupied with temporal things over spiritual things is to be a spiritual drunk.

66.  A literal alcoholic forfeits SG3 (1Cor.6:10) and as such, so for the spiritual alcoholic.

67.  Spiritual inebriation causes disorientation to BD and the plan of God for the believer’s life.

68.  Running with STA human viewpoint redirects the believer’s focus away from the reality of God’s plan.

69.  Hence, Peter inserts the 3rd imperative, “fix your hope completely on the grace to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ”.

70.  The ultimate reality for believers is that all will eventually have their Ph2 judged at the Bema.

71.  Spiritual drunkenness has eyes on the physical and temporal and looses sight of the eternal.

72.  No matter lip service given to believing the doctrine of SG3, the spiritual drunk is not truly in touch with its reality and importance.

73.  Evidence of Ph2 sobriety depends upon application.

74.  The verb “fix your hope/evlpi,zw – elpizo” is the main verb of the Greek sentence.

75.  The participles “girding of the minds” and “staying sober” are preliminary to this imperative.

76.  Peter continues to build upon the priority of sequence with his commands.

77.  Without the consistent intake of BD and spiritual sobriety, this imperative is rendered useless.

78.  The adverb “completely/telei,wj – teleios” places supreme importance upon the verb and could be rendered “unreservedly/totally”.

79.  The very design of the 1st two imperatives is to maximize what our eternal life niche has to offer.

80.  This imperative “fix your hope completely” addresses the supreme importance of SG3 and the attitude that each and every believer should have towards the awards ceremony.

81.  The grace to be brought to you” refers to the above-and-beyond blessings distributed at the Bema Seat.

82.  All CA believers will receive the standard blessings associated with positional sanctification: namely, resurrection bodies like Christ’s.  1Joh.3:2

83.  Some, if not many, will receive no reward.  1Cor.3:15

84.  There will be a relative few that will receive the wreath that is the token of a completed and successful Ph2.

85.  It will be bestowed upon those that die adjusted to BD.

86.  There will be an in-between group that will receive varying amounts of SG3 but no wreath.  See Doctrine of SG3

87.  The phrase “at the revelation of Jesus Christ” refers to His coming to receive the Church unto Himself (Bema event).  Cp.1Pet.1:7; 4:13; cf.1Cor.1:7 cp.1The.4:13-18

88.  Believers that are girded with truth while remaining sober are believers that consider carefully their decisions and endeavors.

89.  They refuse to loose sight on the eternal inheritance that awaits them.

90.  Everything we do should be done with a view to how it impacts on this prophetic certainty.  Cp.2Cor.5:10; cp.Rom.14:10,12

91.  Paul places the same importance upon the building up of the SG3 account.  Col.3:1

92.  As did Jesus in Mat.6:19,20

93.  Temporal accomplishments and advantages at the expense of SG3 will only result in lasting dishonor.  Cp.Phi.3:19

94.  Peter has outlined 3 general categories of priorities the +V adjusted believer establishes and maintains in their lives:

A.    MPR (girding the loins of their minds with truth).

B.     Avoiding excess of cosmic STA and human viewpoint infiltration/FHS (keep sober).  *this allows room for incidental sinning and is dependent upon the 1st imperative.

C.     Maintaining tunnel vision on their SG3 (fix your hope completely…).  *this is dependent upon the 1st 2 imperatives.

95.  All three commands reflect the mental attitude drive and discipline the +V believer refuses to relinquish in life.

96.  It highlights their method of operation (MO) in life following a code of MPR (Heb.10:25), separation from the world (Jam4:4) and SG3 driven motivation (Mat.6:20).




GNT 1 Peter 1:14 w`j te,kna u`pakoh/j mh. Suschmatizo,menoi tai/j pro,teron evn th/| avgnoi,a| u`mw/n evpiqumi,aij


NAS 1 Peter 1:14 As obedient children, w`j (compar.conj.; “As/Just as”)  u`pakoh/j u`pakoh, (n-gf-s; “obedient/submissive/compliant”; same as 1:2 )  te,kna te,knon (n-nn-p; “children”; “children of obedience”)   do not be conformed to the former lusts   mh, (neg. +)  suschmatizo,menoi suschmati,zw (adj.ptc./p/m/nm2p; with force of imperative; “do not conform yourselves to/allow yourselves to be changed to be like/do not mold yourselves to”; the masculine gender would be the proper grammatical gender of these believers likened  as “children”; used 2x; Rom.12:2) pro,teron pro,teroj (compar. Adv.; “before/former”)  tai/j h`  evpiqumi,aij evpiqumi,a (d.a. + n-df-p; “the lusts/evil impulses”)  which were yours in your ignorance,   “which were yours” – supplied  evn (pL)  u`mw/n su, (npg-2p)  th/| h` avgnoi,a| a;gnoia (d.a. + n-Lf-s; “ignorance/lack of knowing better”; used 4x; Act.3:17; 17:30; Eph.4:18)


GNT 1 Peter 1:15 avlla. kata. to.n kale,santa u`ma/j a[gion kai. auvtoi. a[gioi evn pa,sh| avnastrofh/| genh,qhte(


NAS 1 Peter 1:15 but like the Holy One who called you, avlla, (strong advers.; "but/in stark contrast to")  kata, (pa; "like/according to")  to.n o` (dams; governs both noun and ptc. +)  a[gion a[gioj (a--am-s; "the Holy" +)  kale,santa kale,w (adj. ptc./a/a/am-s; "One who called";)  u`ma/j su, (npa-2p; lit. "but like the One who called you is holy")   be holy yourselves also in all your behavior;  genh,qhte( gi,nomai (vImp/a/d--2p; "become/be")   a[gioi a[gioj (a--nm-p; "holy")  auvtoi. auvto,j (npnm2p; "yourselves")  kai, (adjunct.; "also")  evn (pL)  pa,sh| pa/j (a--Lf-s; "all")  avnastrofh/| avnastrofh, (n-Lf-s;  "lit. - turning about in a place, hence; "conduct/behavior/way of life"; used 13x, 8x in Peter's writings; 1:18; 2:12; 3:1,2,16; 2Pet.2:7; 3:11 ) 


GNT 1 Peter 1:16 dio,ti ge,graptai o[ti {Agioi e;sesqe( o[ti evgw. a[gioj ÎeivmiÐÅ


NAS 1 Peter 1:16 because it is written, "You shall be holy, for I am holy."  dio,ti (subord. conj.; "because/therefore")  ge,graptai gra,fw (viPFp--3s; "it has been written")  o[ti (cc; intro. direct quote)  e;sesqe( eivmi,(vifm--2p; future is volitive with imperatival force; "you yourselves be")  {Agioi a[gioj (a--nm-p; "holy")   o[ti (causal conj.; "for/because")  evgw, (npn-1s; "I Myself")  eivmiÅ eivmi, (vipa--1s; "keep on being") a[gioj (a--nm-s; "holy")


1.      Following on the heels of the adjusted believer’s attitude towards life, Peter now addresses their code of conduct.

2.      This as it relates to their experiential behavior.

3.      It summarizes the experiential condition that must be maintained to facilitate success in meeting their operational goals in vs.13.

4.      Vss.14-16 support vs.13.

5.      Our verses glue together the priorities of vs.13 making the adjusted believer’s approach to life a cohesive package and in essence all are dependent upon the other.

6.      Further, they address that necessary to maximize “the grace to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ” (just as girding the mind and spiritual sobriety did).

7.      To maintain one’s MPR, spiritual sobriety and complete focus on SG3 demands isolation of the STA.

8.      Isolation of the STA places the believer’s applications in the category of Divine good production.  See Doctrine of Divine Good Production

9.      Restated, the believer’s works as a result of the intake of BD and staying in FHS is what qualifies their actions for SG3.

10.  Therefore, vss.14-16 reflect the compatible behavior vs.13 is designed to produce.

11.  With the proper priorities established in life, the natural result is a life fulfilling the godliness code in service to God that will be rewarded at the Bema.

12.  The opening phrase “as obedient children” is literally in the Greek text “just as children of obedience” (genitive of quality).

13.  The comparative conjunction “w`j – hos/as” metaphorically asserts the proper behavior expected of the believer that is pursuing BD.

14.  Formerly, these believers were “sons of disobedience” and “children of wrath” in their unbelief.  Cf.Eph.2:1-3

15.  With their conversion to Christianity, their status changed dramatically.

16.  Faith in Christ is an act of obedience that set them apart from the rest of the world (cp.vs.2).  Cf.Heb.5:9

17.  The believer becomes a child of God through the new birth (vs3).

18.  As God’s child, we are supposed to structure our lives Ph2 in continued obedience to the truth.  Cp.1Pet.1:22

19.  Peter’s designation of these believers as obedient children recognizes their acceptance of the gospel Ph1 and their continued need to remain obedient Ph2.

20.  This phrase also serves as a serious form of address:  like the obedient children that you are”.

21.  It is recognition of their adherence to BD and reminder of their obligation in submission to its authority.

22.  The comparison is taken from Divine Institution #3, the family with children.

23.  Children are above all else to be characterized by obedience.  Eph.6:1; Col.3:20

24.  Disobedience of the child is a manifestation of the STA and especially prevalent in the last days.  Cp.2Tim.3:2

25.  It is indicative of –V and the unbeliever.  Rom.1:30

26.  The believer has been set free from the absolute rulership of the STA.  Rom.8:2 cf.7:14,18  See Doctrine of the OSN/STA

27.  The STA is hostile to God and manifests itself as antinomian to the truth.  Rom.8:7-8

28.  Believers are not to emulate the spiritual antinomianism of their unbelieving counterparts.

29.  This is the thrust of the rest of vs.14; “do not be conformed to the former lusts which were yours in your ignorance”.

30.  The present participle “conformed/suschmati,zw – suschematizo” carries imperatival force.

31.  It denotes the fashioning of something by using a shaped container such as a form or mold.

32.  The preceding negative “mh, - me” makes this a prohibition.

33.  It is used only one other time in the NT in Rom.12:2, “And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may discern what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect”.

34.  Peter writes that believers are not to be conformed or molded by what he calls “the former lusts”.

35.  The comparative adjective “former/pro,teroj – proteros” points to their pre-salvation past before they were enlightened to God’s plan.

36.  The noun “lusts/evpiqumi,a – epithumia” is reference to the ISTA possessing fleshly desires or passions.  Cp.Rom.6:12; 13:14; Gal.5:16; Eph.4:22; etc.

37.  Whereas Paul exhorts the believer to not be molded by the world, Peter exhorts to not be molded by the lust pattern of the STA.

38.  The two uses of the term “conformed” in the NT points to the fact that the Christian battle is engaged on two fronts: The enemy without and the enemy within.

39.  The enemy without is the –V of the world outside the fellowship of +V.

40.  Part of maintaining spiritual sobriety in vs.13 is by applying separation to the world.  Cp.Jam.4:4

41.  The other part of spiritual sobriety is fighting the enemy within (STA) not conforming to its power, monetary, approbation and sex lusts.

42.  How successful we are in fighting the inner battle will further determine our success outwardly in the A/C.

43.  Lust refers to all kinds of self-seeking, whether directed towards wealth, power, status or pleasure.

44.  Approbation is the desire to meet the approval of others, often measured in our times by material success.

45.  Christians are not to conform themselves to this mold of past STA impulses.

46.  We are to live for God and not for our STA’s.

47.  Otherwise we will lose big time at the Bema.

48.  The degree to which the individual believer follows the dictates of his/her STA, to that extent loss and/or shame awaits them at the Bema.  1Joh.2:28

49.  Peter attributes their former absorption in STA lusts to their “ignorance/a;gnoia – agnoia”.

50.  This looks to the futility of all unbelievers under the complete rulership of the STA not comprehending the POG due to –V.  Cp.Eph.4:17-19

51.  His choice of terms is significant for this predominate audience of Gentile believers.

52.  To the Jew, ignorance characterized the Gentiles with their pervasive idolatry and sensuality.

53.  This term implies that the recipients were largely converts from paganism.

54.  Just as the Hebrew Christians were commanded to avoid practice of cosmic idolatry (Lev.18:2-4), so must the newly grafted Israel of God among the nations.

55.  False religion caters to the STA with its human viewpoint standards; true religion (Biblical Christianity) is to be pure and undefiled of these things.  Jam.1:26-27; 2Pet.2:1-3

56.  In this vein, vss.15 sets before the believer a positive and objective model of conformity, “but like the Holy One who called you, be holy yourselves also in all your behavior”.

57.  The strong adversative “but/avlla, - alla” highlights the stark contrast between those  ruled by the STA and the adjusted believer ruled by BD “keeping it in its cage” so to speak.

58.  We are not to emulate a life sponsored by the STA, but pursue the holiness of God.

59.  Paul issues a similar command for God’s children to be imitators of Him.  Eph.5:1

60.  Peter uses a familiar Jewish designation of God as “the Holy One”.  Psa.71:22; 78:41; 89:18; Pro.9:10; 30:3; Isa.1:4; 5:19,24; etc.

61.  Peter modifies the Hebrew title with the aorist participle “kale,w – kaleo/the One having called you”.

62.  The participle is in apposition to the pronominal use of the preceding adjective “the Holy One/a=gioj – hagios”.

63.  A literal translation could be rendered, “but like the One who called you is holy”.

64.  The participle itself looks back to the point when they were evangelized under the doctrine of election and calling.

65.  It points to God’s purpose of plan in His call for believers to be made in conformity (likeness) of Christ in resurrection glory.  Rom.8:29-30

66.  The believer’s Ph2 success will determine the extent of glory they will receive in eternity (cp.vs.7).

67.  Since the Holy One called us to be His children, we are to aspire to be like our heavenly parent.

68.  God’s holiness emphasizes His attribute of absolute righteousness (+R).

69.  Because He is morally perfect, He is set apart (basic meaning of hagios) from all the rest.

70.  Believers are then enjoined by the imperative “be holy” to make +R our trademark in life.

71.  The idea behind the imperative is “show (give evidence) yourselves holy”.

72.  As God is +R, He demands the practice of +R in His children.

73.  While He does not demand perfection, He does demand that we display a strong resemblance to our progenitor (originator).

74.  The phrase “in all your behavior” means just that.

75.  It includes our thought, speech and overt actions.

76.  The noun “behavior/avnastrofh, - anastrophe” means manner of life (conduct) and is used 13x in the NT.  Gal.1:13; Eph.4:22; 1Tim.4:12; Heb.13:7; Jam.3:13; 1Pet.1:15, 18; 2:12; 3:1,2,16; 2Pet.2:7; 3:11

77.  The Latin is modus Vivendi.

78.  This is the 1st of 8 uses of this word in Peter’s epistles illustrating the importance of behavior in the Christian life.

79.  Its use has the widest possible application.

80.  +R is to characterize the day-to-day conduct of believers always and everywhere.

81.  RB (1Joh.1:9) is the mechanics to qualify the believer’s experiential behavior under the umbrella of +R in all that they do.

82.  Spirit-filled +R is to characterize our entire course of life.

83.  Hence, the importance of being fastidious in our RB.

84.  Rebound is a license to serve God under the standard of +R.

85.  Everyday living is to be in accord with God’s +R as articulated in His Word.

86.  Our experiential +R is not a proposition of “when we feel like it”, but is to be an active pursuit at all times.

87.  Rationalizing inappropriate behavior as simply “grace abounding” is never to be our attitude.  Cp.Rom.6:1-4

88.  In vs.16, Peter then backs up this high calling for believers, “because it is written, ‘You shall be holy, for I am holy’”.

89.  His OT citation is exactly the LXX of Lev.19:2.

90.  His documentation presented as the cause for why believers are to be Holy points to why adjusted believers do what they do in the Christian life; because it is written in the Scriptures.

91.  The adjusted believer does not rationalize God’s word or try to circumvent it.

92.  He/she adopts every aspect of BD as God inspired and the ultimate authority in life.  2Tim.3:16

93.  +R in “all your behavior” is not guesswork, but is clearly set forth in the WOG.

94.  For CA believers, God’s directive will is clearly defined through the royal imperatives of the NT.

95.  Disobedience to any command of the royal imperatives is less than holy.

96.  To opt for any alternative to BD and its application is failure to avoiding being conformed to our former lusts.

97.  It is clear with Peter quoting from the Levitical portion of the Law of Moses that he regards the church as a neo-Levitical community.

98.  He is addressing CA believers under distinct priestly terms.

99.  To Peter the Church is the New Israel.  Cf.1Pet.2:9

100.          Like Israel of old, the Church as a universal priesthood is to conduct itself according to the godliness code set forth in the WOG.

101.          The universal royal priesthood of the Church is to live in accordance with that high standard or suffer the consequences for time and eternity.

102.          Those that adhere to the godliness code and with consistency, will inherit accordingly.

103.          The words “You shall be holy, for I am holy” run like a refrain through Leviticus.  Lev.11:44,45; 19:2; 20:7,26

104.          For this reason, Lev.17-26 has been designated the holiness code.

105.          The holiness code for Israel is set forth in the Mosaic Covenant and reinforced by the Prophets.

106.          Again, the holiness code for the Church is set forth in the NT with its royal imperatives.

107.          Holiness is opposite of what is profane (blasphemous/irreverent).  Cp.1Tim.1:9

108.          In near Eastern religions, generally holiness was understood as a dangerous, quasinaturalistic power or explosive force inherent in cult objects, places, activities or persons.

109.          However, in the OT, it is God Himself, in His perfect essence that is in the authentic sense the Holy One.

110.          According to Divine viewpoint, holiness has an ethical and moral element in it.

111.          The Mosaic Law with its OT Holiness Code, mixed with ritual injunctions contains a mass of commands of profoundly moral import.

112.          The OT takes for granted that God imparts holiness to whatever objects or people He appropriates to Himself.

113.          Thus Jerusalem is holy (Isa.52:1) as is the Temple (Psa.5:7).

114.          Israel is holy because God has chosen it as His people and dwells in their midst.  Deu.7:6; 26:18-19

115.          The NT reflects this same truth as believers that are the Church are “saints/a`gioj – hagios”.

116.          We are saints via imputation of +R at saving faith and positional sanctification.

117.          The call here is to Ph2 sanctification via the intake and application of the godliness code in FHS.



GNT 1 Peter 1:17 Kai. eiv pate,ra evpikalei/sqe to.n avproswpolh,mptwj kri,nonta kata. to. e`ka,stou e;rgon( evn fo,bw| to.n th/j paroiki,aj u`mw/n cro,non avnastra,fhte(


NAS 1 Peter 1:17 And if you address as Father the One who impartially judges   Kai, (cc)  eiv (cond.part.; 1st class; "If"..and you do)  evpikalei/sqe evpikale,w (vipm--2p; "you yourself call upon/address/name"; )  to.n o` (dams; governs both noun and ptc. +)  pate,ra path,r (n-am-s; "the Father")  kri,nonta kri,nw (adj.ptc./p/a/am-s; "the One who judges")  avproswpolh,mptwj (adv.; "impartially/without respect of persons")  according to each man's work,   kata, (pa; "according to")  e`ka,stou e[kastoj (ap-gm-s; "each man's"; subjective gen.; produces the action)  to,  e;rgon( (d.a. + n-an-s; "work/deed")   conduct yourselves in fear during the time of your stay upon earth;   avnastra,fhte( avnastre,fw (vImpap--2p; lit. "live/stay"; fig. "conduct yourself/act/behave during life"; used 9x)  evn (pL)  fo,bw| fo,boj (n-Lm-s; "fear")  to.n to,, cro,non cro,noj (d.a. + n-am-s; "the time") th/j h` paroiki,aj paroiki,a (d.a. + n-gf-s; "of temporary residence/during life on earth"; used 2x; Act.13:17)  u`mw/n su, (npg-2p)


1.      Vs.17 begins a new paragraph in the Greek text ending in vs.21.

2.      The subject of holiness (+R) remains the foundation of thought, but its emphasis takes a different course.

3.      This as it relates to our personal relationship with God (vs.17) followed with pertinent doctrine underwriting its importance as applied to salvation (vss.18-21).

4.      Vss.17-21 are designed to provide further motivation as to the importance of adhering to God’s +R in living the Christian life.

5.      Peter immediately draws attention to these believers’ prayer life, “And if you address the Father (with the d.a.)”.

6.      The believer’s prayer life is as personal to him/her as to that of the closest confidant in life.

7.      If the facts be known, the believer’s prayers probably expose a more openness and uninhibited communication with God than even to the closest of other companions.

8.      Prayer to God is a privilege that the adjusted believer takes full advantage.

9.      That these believers had adhered to the importance of prayer is made clear with the 1st class condition particle “if/eiv – ei” meaning “and it is so”.

10.  Their relationship to God as Father is not introduced as something new, but presupposed as Peter’s basis of logic for the command concerning their conduct in the final clause.

11.  These believers were taught to “address/call upon/evpikale,w – epikaleo” God as Father” as a part of the protocol of prayer.

12.  This is the same protocol Jesus taught to His disciples as opening their prayers.  Mat.6:9

13.  All prayer is to be addressed to the first Person of the Godhead.

14.  In the OT, God was rarely called Father and the term was more a metaphor than a fixed title.  Psa.89:26; Jer.3:19; Mal.1:6

15.  Jesus made it a fixed title in His use of the Aramaic “Abba/avbba/ - abba”, which is more closely associated with our term “daddy”.  Mar.14:36 cp.Rom.8:15; Gal.4:6

16.  That we are God’s children through the principle of adoption, we are granted the same right as His natural Son to address God as Father.

17.  We identify with God through the Son.  Eph.5:20; Col.3:17

18.  Peter then reminds these believers to Whom they are really talking to; “the One who impartially judges according to each man’s work”.

19.  As personal as the believer’s relationship to God is in prayer, the believer is never to forget He is the ultimate Judge of every man.

20.  Jesus Christ is the agency through whom the Father judges.  Joh.5:22

21.  Consciousness of their sonship might tempt them to expect favorable treatment.

22.  Peter makes clear that is not the case.

23.  Peter began this epistle by identifying God as Father (vs.2), both of Christ and believers (vs.3).

24.  Since the One who called us is +R, it follows that we should emulate +R in all our behavior (thought, word and deed) (vss.14-16).

25.  That being the case, the next logical step is a reminder that the Holy One will “impartially judge” their life on earth.

26.  The adverb “impartially/avproswpolh,mptwj – aprosopolemptos” is a hapax and indicates that God judges based on His holiness rather than who and what we are.

27.  When God evaluates men in time, the determining factor of judgment will fall upon the principle of whether their choices and actions in time line up with His +R or not.

28.  And just because He is the believer’s Father does not mean he/she is exempt from judgment.

29.  On the contrary, believers will face judgment before unbelievers.  Cf.4:17

30.  This will occur at the Bema Seat judgment.  2Cor.5:10

31.  The emphasis here is less on their relationship with God by virtue of positional truth as on the fact that as His children they are held accountable for their Ph2 niche.

32.  In other words, that believers have a special relationship to God by virtue of their calling and new birth, then it is crucial that they keep before them who He is and display the reverence demanded by His Person as +R.

33.  God will at the specified time, judge “each man’s work” and that without respect to persons.

34.  The singular noun “work/e;rgon – ergon” looks past the units of divine good production to an evaluation of one’s entire Ph2 as a whole to determine worthiness to receive the wreath or not.

35.  The believer at the Bema Seat will undergo two evaluations.

36.  The first dealing with each increment of our works or deeds.  1Cor.3:12-15; 2Cor.5:10; Heb.6:10

37.  The second has to do with an overall evaluation with respect to a finished course.  Cp.Rev.2:10c,26

38.  This is a very sobering thought designed to motivate the believer’s pursuit of God’s holiness throughout the entirety of their Christian life.

39.  To fall short of obtaining the prize is tantamount to failing the Christian life.  1Cor.9:24 – if you are not a prize winner, you are a loser!!

40.  That the entirety of their life is in view is made clear in the second clause, “conduct yourselves in fear during the time of your stay upon earth”.

41.  The phrase “in fear” has its time frame fixed by the following phrase “during the time of your stay upon earth”.

42.  Peter urges them to live out the balance of their time on earth in godly fear knowing that each one must give an account.

43.  The imperative “conduct/avnastre,fw – anastrepho” is used figuratively emphasizing ones moral actions in life.  Cf.2Cor.1:12; 2Pet.2:18

44.  The aorist tense is a snapshot of their life as believers.

45.  The “fear/fo,boj – phobos” is a sanctified or righteous fear of God.

46.  Fear of God is the beginning of wisdom.  Psa.111:10; Pro.1:7; 9:10; 15:33

47.  The emphasis here is that with the pursuit of BD we are to fear God and make our decisions in accord with His +R.

48.  When we are holy (vs.15) we fear God.

49.  Peter’s point is that since the God whom they address as Father is to be their judge, they would be wise to have a healthy dread of His judgment and shape their behavior accordingly.

50.  They should not so much cling to their status as children as to always keep in mind that their performance as His children will be judged.

51.  We should always keep tabs that our Ph2 is on par for a finished course acceptable to God.  Phi.2:12

52.  The check list (vss.13-17) for an adjusted Ph2 thus far includes:  MPR, spiritual sobriety, always focused on SG3, isolation of the STA, righteous behavior and now fear of meeting God with a less than completed course.

53.  The noun translated “stay/paroiki,a – paroikia” denotes a temporary residence.

54.  It is only used elsewhere in Act.13:17 of the Jews’ temporary residence in Egypt.

55.  This term contrasts the believer’s transitory life on earth with their permanent and eternal home Ph3.

56.  These believer’s paroiki,a in Roman times came to an end and they, along with all believers await final evaluation in connection with the parousi,a of Christ.

57.  These believers are reminded of their alien status of Gentile believers opening Peter’s epistle in vs.1.

58.  The idea further parallels 1Pet.4:2.

59.  As long as our allotment of days remains there is still opportunity to shed the impending shame and loss that awaits those that stand before Christ unprepared.  1Joh.2:28



GNT 1 Peter 1:18 eivdo,tej o[ti ouv fqartoi/j( avrguri,w| h' crusi,w|( evlutrw,qhte evk th/j matai,aj u`mw/n avnastrofh/j patroparado,tou


NAS 1 Peter 1:18 knowing that you were not redeemed eivdo,tej oi=da (circ. ptc. PF/a/nm2p; "while having known/realized")  o[ti (ch; intro. content of knowledge)  ouv (neg +)  evlutrw,qhte lutro,w (viap--2p; "you were not redeemed/set free"; used 3x, Luk.24:21; Tit.2:14)  with perishable things like silver or gold    fqartoi/j( fqarto,j (ap-In-p; "with perishable things/things subject to decay or destruction or that which is transitory"; used 6x, Rom.1:23; 1Cor.9:25; 15:53,54; 1Pet.1:23)  avrguri,w| avrgu,rion (n-In-s; "like silver")  h; (cc; "or")  crusi,w|( crusi,on (n-In-s; "gold")   from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers,   evk (pAbl; "out from")  u`mw/n su, (npg-2p; "your")  th/j h` matai,aj ma,taioj (d.a. + a--Ablf-s; "futile/worthless/foolish")  avnastrofh/j avnastrofh, (n-Ablf-s; "way of life/behavior"; same as 1:15)  patroparado,tou patropara,dotoj (a--Ablf-s; "inherited from your forefathers/handed down from one's ancestors"; hapax)


GNT 1 Peter 1:19 avlla. timi,w| ai[mati w`j avmnou/ avmw,mou kai. avspi,lou Cristou/(


NAS 1 Peter 1:19 but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ.  avlla, (strong adver.; "but")  timi,w| ti,mioj (a--In-s; "with precious/valuable/costly")  ai[mati ai-ma (n-In-s; "blood")  w`j (compar. adj.; "as"; introducing metaphorical or figurative language often with one or both sides of the comparison abbreviated or understood "as" or "like"; cp.Mat.13:43)  avmnou/ avmno,j (n-gm-s; "of a lamb"; used 4x, Joh.1:29,36; Act.8:32; other 3 uses in ref. to Christ)  avmw,mou a;mwmoj (a--gm-s; "unblemished/blameless/flawless"; used lit. of the absence of defects in sacrificial animals)  kai, (cc)  avspi,lou a;spiloj (a--gm-s; "spotless/stainless"; used 4x, 1Tim.6:14; Jam.1:27; 2Pet.3:14)  "the blood" supplied  Cristou/( Cristo,j (n-gm-s)


1.      Following the thoughts of God as Holy and Judge, Peter moves to a third compelling motivator for righteous conduct.

2.      Namely, what Christ sacrificed to rescue believers from their pre-salvation existence.

3.      For any informed believer, Christ’s work on the cross should evoke extreme gratitude for a way of escape from an otherwise pointless life and eternal damnation.

4.      And that way of escape is through His providing +R so that we may attain to God’s standard of holiness.  Cp.2Cor.5:21

5.      Peter appeals to elementary doctrine they have GAP’d as a frame of reference to this fact.

6.      The opening perfect participle “knowing/oi-da – oida” indicates doctrine they had previously been taught.

7.      It could be translated “knowing as you do”.

8.      Paul repeatedly uses this exact participle to stir the thinking of his readers.  Rom.5:3; 6:9; 1Cor.15:58; 2Cor.5:6; Eph.6:8,9; Col.3:24; 4:1 

9.      Peter calls upon these believers to now recall doctrine they obviously know and apply it to his exhortation of experiential holiness.

10.  Peter’s use of this term is a natural expectation for believers having taken doctrine seriously and embedding it securely in their thinking.

11.  It points to the principle that even milk doctrine has a continuous role in our understanding of living the Christian life.

12.  One never knows when occasion may arise to revisit basic doctrine as a source of further discernment or encouragement in dealing with the rigors of our Ph2.

13.  The particular doctrine in view centers on salvation Ph1.

14.  This points to the fact that Ph2 doctrine stands on the foundation of Ph1 doctrine.  Cp.1Cor.3:10-12

15.  Peter approaches salvation under its terms of redemption, “that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold”.

16.  The verb “redeemed/lutro,w – lutroo” is used 3x and has the basic meaning “to set free/deliver”.

17.  It was a technical term in the Greco-Roman world for the money paid to buy a slave his freedom.

18.  It is used in Luk.24:21 of the Jews misconception that Messiah at the 1st Advent would free Israel from Roman rule.

19.  The cognate noun “lu,tron – lutron” is translated “ransom” and emphasizes the cost or price of setting free from slavery or captivity (held hostage).

20.  Peter is here harking back to Christ’s teaching with respect to His primary mission at the 1st Advent.  Mat.20:28; Mar.10:45

21.  His choice in use of the verb over the noun here is to emphasize from what Christ delivers believers.

22.  Paul uses the same verb in Tit.2:14 explaining that very thing, “who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself a people for His own possession, zealous for good works”.

23.  Mankind is born physically into the slave market of sin.

24.  From birth all mankind is spiritually dead, held hostage enslaved to the ISTA.  Eph.2:1

25.  Christ’s work on the cross is that which provided man freedom from the rulership of the STA providing instead opportunity to allow righteousness to rule.  Rom.6:5-7, 10-14, 17-23

26.  This is essential if the believer is to operate under the standard of God’s +R.  Cf.Joh.8:34

27.  Christ’s redeeming power was 1st and foremost spiritual in nature as it delivers the believer from spiritual death that reigned as a result of the STA.  Cp.Rom.5:21

28.  Peter reminds his audience of this fact in his reference to perishable things like silver or gold.

29.  Before stating what the redemption price consisted of, Peter states what it did not involve.

30.  While silver and gold can open many doors, they cannot open the door for spiritual life.

31.  Peter makes clear that salvation is not based on the physical or tangible, even as valuable as these precious metals.  Cp.Psa.49:5-9

32.  Christ’s efficacious work on the cross (that which saves us from sin) was spiritual in nature, not physical.

33.  And what He redeemed are the souls of men.  Cp.Mat.10:28; cf.Psa.34:22

34.  For all things that money can buy, it is worthless when it comes to the redemption of the soul.

35.  God only accepts one commodity as it will be stated in vs.19.

36.  Wealth cannot purchase the single most important and valuable thing we have – the soul.

37.  Physical things of value are useless with respect to the redemption of the soul from the curse associated with the fall of man.

38.  God cannot accept a perishable commodity for an imperishable one.

39.  Any attempt to save one’s soul by any physical means is nothing more than a dead end as Peter reminds them of their previous pre-salvation life, “from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers”.

40.  The adjective “futile/ma,taioj – mataios” looks to something “worthless/foolish/vain”.

41.  The noun “way of life/avnastrofh, - anastrophe” is the same noun used in vs.15 emphasizing their “behavior”.

42.  Their futile behavior looks to their pre-salvation life attempts to secure the good of a life hereafter (relative righteousness).

43.  It harks to their previous way of life embracing pagan religiosity as characterized by thinking that was futile/vain/useless.

44.  This is the reality of all unregenerate life pursuing “God” apart from faith in Christ.

45.  As is the norm for most men, their approach and philosophy was inherited from their forefathers.

46.  The ancestral upbringing of these converts was totally bankrupt to affect real spiritual change.

47.  They had inherited a legacy that was a dead end.

48.  For all its claims, ostentation and longevity, their ancestral traditions were as good as if they never existed.

49.  For all the billions upon billions of people that have been born into false religion and philosophy, not one has risen above the slave market of sin through that system.

50.  These early Gentile believers of the Church came to appreciate their new blessed status out from a sea of futility.

51.  No matter how much gold and silver given in their religious transactions considered valid for eternal promises, the price of their redemption or rescue was all for naught.

52.  Peter completely disparages the notion that anything perishable can redeem its opposite.

53.  Money cannot buy release from the penalty of sin.

54.  Even at its greatness, pagan life is null and void in the spiritual realm.

55.  The practice of giving money or other physical reparation is still utilized today as in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy as purchasing the dead from the state of purgatory into the heavenly realm.

56.  In vs.19, Peter reveals the only acceptable “coin” able to deliver men from the slave market of sin, “but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ”.

57.  The strong adversative “but/avlla, - alla” emphasizes the start contrast between any physical attempts to secure salvation (energy of the flesh/relative righteousness) with the spiritual reality.

58.  Peter clearly employs imagery that parallels OT sacrifice.

59.  The “ransom” for redemption is described as the “precious blood of Christ”.

60.  Christ is then likened to a lamb unblemished and spotless, based on OT typology of the Levitical sacrifices.

61.  The term “lamb/avmno,j – amnos” is used only 3 other times in the NT and always in reference to Christ.  Joh.1:29,36; Act.8:32 cf.vs.35

62.  This key word has as its OT antecedent the Passover lamb.

63.  Israel’s deliverance from Egyptian bondage was predicated upon their participation in the first Passover observed in Egypt.  Exo.12:1-13

64.  Paul understood this significance of sacrifice within OT history and its shadow Christology and soteriology when he spoke of “Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed” in 1Cor.5:7

65.  Christ is the reality:  The true Paschal (Passover/suffering) Lamb.

66.  Under the Law all sacrificial animals had to fulfill the requirement of perfection.

67.  Under no circumstances could an animal be used for sacred purposes that had a detectable flaw or imperfection.

68.  Birth defects, disease or injury rendered otherwise qualified animal sacrifices unacceptable.  Lev.22:17-25

69.  Peter uses two adjectives to describe Christ’s qualifications as the reality of the type.

70.  The first “unblemished/a;mwmoj – amomos” means physically “without blemish or defect” and metaphorically of “moral blamelessness or without fault”.

71.  The second adjective “spotless/a;spiloj – aspilos” means “without stain, pure or uncorrupted” and again metaphorically of moral purity.

72.  Spotless” indicates a disqualification from an external association.

73.  The first adjective implies Jesus was born physically without an STA, while the second denotes neither did He succumb to external temptation.

74.  In order to qualify as the “sacrificial Lamb”, Christ’s humanity had to be both inherently pure (minus ISTA) and remain sinless throughout His life.

75.  Just as a sacrificial animal had to be without physical defect, so Jesus had to be inherently pure.

76.  The mechanics for Christ to be born in this way was through the virgin birth.  Cp.Mat.1:23-25

77.  This allowed Him to be born with a human spirit that is created as +R.  Cf.  Eph.4:24

78.  Further, in hypostatic union Christ’s humanity was temptable and capable of sinning (He had free will; cp.Joh.5:30).

79.  He could have followed the pattern of Adam and sinned apart from a sin nature.

80.  Remember that Adam’s original sin was committed in the absence of a sin nature.

81.  Without the ISTA, Jesus’ humanity came into this world qualified as +R.

82.  This allowed Him to avoid temptation from within and that He was spotless declares He avoided temptation from without (maintained +R).  Cp.1Pet.2:22; 1Joh.3:5

83.  Any sin would have disqualified Him as a sacrifice for the sins of the world.

84.  He would have died spiritually prematurely forfeiting His human spirit, as happened to Adam.  Cp.Gen.2:16-17

85.  OT animal sacrifice required the death of the animal through the shedding of blood.

86.  The Passover lamb’s blood had to be applied to the lintels and door posts of the Israelite dwellings for the people to escape death at the 1st Passover.

87.  While the lamb portrays Christ, the shed blood of the lamb portrays Christ’s work towards sin on the Cross.  Again cp.1Cor.5:7

88.  All animal victims of sacrifice bled to death under the knife, which blood was their life source.  Lev.17:11

89.  The writer of Hebrews teaches that the literal blood of animal sacrifice does not save.  Heb.10:1-4

90.  The blood of Christ does not refer to His physical blood, as He, in contrast to the animal sacrifices of OT times, did not bleed to death on the Cross.

91.  Just as Christ is not a literal lamb, bull, ram, etc., so His shed blood is not literal in the saving us from sins, as so many think.

92.  The blood of Christ is a representative analogy, not a direct analogy.

93.  Sacrificial animal blood vs. Christ’s blood is not an x = x proposition, but x = y.

94.  The animal bleeding to death = Christ’s work bearing sins from 12 to 3 PM.

95.  Fact:  Christ did not die by bleeding to death.

96.  Fact:  He did bleed through wounds inflicted by men both prior to and during His crucifixion.

97.  Fact:  There was ample blood remaining in His body to sustain life when He actually died.

98.  Fact:  After He had died, a Roman soldier pierced His side and out came blood and water (serum).  Joh.19:34

99.  Fact:  Christ died of His own free will as He prophesied He would and not as a result of the trauma of crucifixion; He was unique even in His physical death.  Luk.23:46 cf.Joh.10:17-18; Mat.27:50

100.          All references to the blood of Christ relate to the 3 hour time frame on the Cross when He bore the sins of mankind as marked off by the darkness that engulfed the area.  Mat.27:45

101.          At the end of the 3 hours He cried out: “My God, My God, why have You forsaken me?”  Mat.27:46

102.          Following 3 more sayings from the Cross (Woman behold your son!”/”Behold your mother!”/”I am thirsty!” [Joh.19:26,27,28]), He proclaimed “It is finished!” (Joh.19:30).

103.          What was finished was His sin bearing during the 3 hours and broken fellowship with the Father as implied in Mat.27:46.

104.          While enshrouded under the privacy of darkness, Christ’s humanity experienced judgment directly from the hand of God as a ransom for the sins of all mankind.

105.          That Christ’s blood is defined as “precious/ti,mioj – timios” indicates that what He sacrificed was extremely costly.

106.          The “tender” of His ransom paid to the Father as He accepted the judgment of sins for the whole world in His body was through the agency of His human spirit.

107.          This is implied in Heb.9:14;  Corrected translation:  “how much more will the blood of Christ, who through His eternal spirit (dia. pneu,matoj aivwni,ou – dia pnuematos aiwniou) offered Himself without blemish to God..”

108.          That Jesus’ human spirit is eternal provides the eternal commodity necessary to purchase another eternal commodity, the soul.

109.          Christ sacrificed His human spirit that was +R (precious token of His sinlessness) undergoing voluntary spiritual death while enduring the judgments of sins in His body as man’s substitute for sins and –R.

110.          Christ’s work towards sin on the cross was two-fold:  Enduring the lashes of God‘s wrath in His body rightly deserved by fallen man (1Pet.2:24) and paying the ultimate price of His +R to redeem man from their spiritual bankruptcy reversing spiritual death and instead providing spiritual life (1Pet.3:18; cp. Joh.3:5-6; 1Cor.15:45).

111.          Again, Christ’s shedding of His precious blood opened the doors for men to possess God’s +R based on His sinless character.  2Cor.5:21

112.          Christ lived on earth from 3BC (Sep.11) until 33 AD (Fri.,Apr.3) with no sinful activity to His account.

113.          Paradoxically, He came in contact with all the sinful activity of all mankind for all time.

114.          In this way the ransom price for deliverance from the slave market of sin was paid to God the Father.

115.          The blood of Christ is indeed “precious” as it provides the potential of eternal salvation to all that simply believe in Him, who died for our redemption.

116.          There is nothing more precious than this commodity.

117.          Peter’s audience is to “Think about it!!”.

118.          Jesus did this so believers could not only possess their own +R (human spirit), but to actually live experientially under God’s standard of holiness (vss.15-16).  Cp.Rom.8:10

119.          Our fidelity experientially should belong to Christ as we are one spirit with Him.  1Cor.6:17-18

120.          We are to represent the +R which He provided for us.

121.          This fact presented in the present context provides compelling motivation to spiritual excellence in the face of the enemy.

122.          Knowing this with any sense of gratitude should motivate us to live in godly fear for the balance of our stay on earth (vs.17).




GNT 1 Peter 1:20 proegnwsme,nou me.n pro. katabolh/j ko,smou fanerwqe,ntoj de. evpV evsca,tou tw/n cro,nwn diV u`ma/j


NAS 1 Peter 1:20 For He was foreknown before the foundation of the world,  proegnwsme,nou proginw,skw (adj.ptc./PF/p/gm-s; "Who was foreknown/known beforehand or in advance/For He was foreknown"; used 5x; Act.26:5; Rom.8:29; 11:2;2Pet.3:17; singular genitive case ref. back to "Christ" ending vs.19)  me,n (intensive part.; often left untranslated; "indeed/surely"; when used with de, - "on the one hand, to be sure"..."but")  pro, (pAbl; "before")  katabolh/j katabolh, (n-Ablf-s; "the foundation/beginning"; used 11x; 10x used with the following noun "cosmos")  ko,smou ko,smoj (n-gm-s; "of the world")  but has appeared in these last times for the sake of you   de, (cc; "but/on the other hand")   fanerwqe,ntoj fanero,w (adj.ptc./a/p/gm-s; "Who has been revealed/become shown/has been made manifest/been revealed”; used 49x)  evpV evpi, (pg; emphasizes position; "by/at/in")  evsca,tou e;scatoj (ap-gm-s; "the last")  tw/n o` cro,nwn cro,noj (d.a. + n-gm-p; "of the times")  diV dia, (pa; "because of/for the sake of")  u`ma/j su, (npa-2p; "you all")


GNT 1 Peter 1:21 tou.j diV auvtou/ pistou.j eivj qeo.n to.n evgei,ranta auvto.n evk nekrw/n kai. do,xan auvtw/| do,nta( w[ste th.n pi,stin u`mw/n kai. evlpi,da ei=nai eivj qeo,nÅ


NAS 1 Peter 1:21 who through Him are believers in God,  tou.j o` (damp; "the ones/who"; modifies the noun "believers"; the accusative case in apposition to the pronoun "su" ending vs.20 +)  diV dia, (pAbl; "through"; denotes agency +)  auvtou/ auvto,j (npgm3s; "ref. Christ; +)  pistou.j pisto,j (ap-am-p; "believing/faithful/are believers")  eivj (pa; "in/into")  qeo.n qeo,j (n-am-s)  who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory,  to.n o` evgei,ranta evgei,rw (d.a. [governs both ptcs.]+ adj.ptc./a/a/am-s; "the One who raised up")  auvto.n auvto,j (npam3s; ref. Christ)  evk (pAbl; "from")  nekrw/n nekro,j (ap-gm-p; "the dead") kai, (cc)  do,nta( di,dwmi(adj.ptc./a/a/am-s; "having gave")  auvtw/| auvto,j (npdm3s; ref. Christ)  do,xan do,xa (n-af-s; "glory")  so that your faith and hope are in God.   w[ste (cs; expresses result; "so that")  u`mw/n su, (npg-2p; ref. believers)  th.n h` pi,stin pi,stij (d.a. + n-af-s; "faith")  kai, (cc)  evlpi,da evlpi,j (n-af-s; "hope")  ei=nai eivmi, (vInf/pa; result; "to be/are")  eivj (pa)  qeo,nÅ qeo,j (n-am-s)


1.      Jesus Christ remains the principle subject of doctrinal discourse in vss.20-21.

2.      Peter now calls upon additional doctrine designed to cement the gravity of the importance of Christ providing believers with +R.

3.      That is, it has always been God’s plan to provide salvation through Him in this way.

4.      The believer’s requirement to be holy in conduct is not some side thought after the fact anymore than Christ was an after thought of God’s plan.

5.      This premise has always been the intention of God’s plan from eternity past.

6.      Knowing this is designed to dissuade any that take issue with less than holy conduct as believers.

7.      This as it applies to fulfilling the royal imperatives while fastidiously dealing with the STA by RB.  Cp.1Joh.2:1

8.      In fact, the entirety of God’s plan as a whole has always been His predetermined resolve for mankind and creation.  Cp.Mat.5:18; Pro.16:4; Isa.46:10-11

9.      The intent of Peter’s words at this point is to solidify in the believer’s doctrinal frame of reference that God will be unbendable as the Judge of the believer’s Ph2 (vs.17).

10.  The one standard by which all lives will be judged is the standard of +R.

11.  God has His own modus operandi with respect to His plan and it behooves the believer to line up with it (adjustments to God’s justice).

12.  And that M/O (vs.13) can only be maintained and accomplished with the properly established modus vivendi following God’s character of holiness (vss.14-16).

13.  The doctrine Peter draws upon is God’s foreknowledge, “For He was foreknown before the foundation of the world”.

14.  Again, this is doctrine these believers had previously GAP’d as part of their “knowing” in vs.18.

15.  The perfect passive participle of “For he was foreknown/proginw,skw – proginosko” is of the strongest of terms to indicate a function of God’s omniscience.

16.  It could be translated, “Who (Christ) was known beforehand with complete certainty”.

17.  The phrase “before the foundation of the world” places the time frame of foreknowledge into eternity past.

18.  The idea is that God always knew from eternity past that the Redeemer would perfectly execute “operation grace” providing the +R ransom for salvation (vs.19).

19.  This is not new doctrine as Peter made the same observation in his address on the day of Pentecost.  Act.2:23

20.  At that time, Peter desired that his audience understand that what had recently happened were not events out of control, but under the direction of God for a purpose formulated in eternity past.

21.  The emphasis there was to evangelize Ph1.

22.  In our verses, the emphasis is for Ph2 of believers reminding them that adhering to the +R provided Ph1 is the only avenue for a successful Christian life.

23.  Everything about Christ “was foreknown” from eternity past including His complete obedience to death, even death on a cross.  Phi.2:8

24.  The plan they are participants in has antecedents that are eternal.

25.  Both the verb “foreknown” and the noun “pro,gnwsij – proginosis) are used of things that are known in advance of their occurrence.

26.  The noun occurs 2x (Act.2:23; 1Pet.1:2).

27.  The verb, 5x (Act.26:5; Rom.8:29; 11:2; 1Pet.1:20; 2Pet.3:17).

28.  Act.26:5 and 2Pet.3:17 makes clear that the sense of this verb is knowledge known in advance.

29.  The noun emphasizes the attribute itself and is only used of God.

30.  The verb emphasizes the ability to foreknow and when used of God emphasizes His exercise of omniscience to ascertain or perfectly anticipate a forthcoming reality.

31.  God in eternity past perfectly anticipated all things of future consequence.

32.  Theologians that try and make the word group of foreknowledge as meaning “foreordination” are in error.

33.  Foreknowledge and foreordination/predestination/election are not synonyms.

34.  The terms used together in Act.2:23 and Rom.8:29 clearly distinguish one from the other.

35.  Christ, along with believers, is both the object of foreknowledge and predestination.

36.  God foreknew everything about the God-Man including the fact the He would be fully qualified to be the Savior.

37.  However, Divine foreknowledge does not make anything certain (not causative).

38.  It simply means that God through His attribute of omniscience had all the facts at His disposal when He formulated “operation grace”.

39.  This allowed Him to formulate a plan free from error and able to then determine the outcome of all its players.

40.  His “predestining” is a result of the exercise of His Sovereign will that the POG would be the outworking of His eternal purpose.

41.  And so, at the propitious moment in human history Christ appeared as the God-Man to provide salvation.

42.  This is the emphasis of vs.20b, “but has appeared in these last times for the sake of you”.

43.  Not translated in the 1st clause of vs.20 is the intensive particle “m,en – men”.

44.  It can be translated “indeed/surely” and when coupled with the adversative “de, - de/but” (as here), it has the nuance of “on the one hand…on the other”.

45.  This particle has the force of “what was only known before hand…became a reality on the other hand”.

46.  One could translate vs.20 as, “Who was foreknown with perfect anticipation on the one hand before the foundation of the world, became reality on the other having appeared in these last times…”.

47.  It carries the idea that God’s perfect foreknowledge is evidenced by its reality coming to fruition.

48.  Proof of the God’s foreknowledge is seen in the fulfillment of His word in all future events as played out through history (prophecy).

49.  The aorist participle “has appeared” presupposes Christ’s actual pre-existence at the 1st Advent (cf. Spirit of Christ vs.11).

50.  What was known from Scripture became manifest in the flesh to those that were Jesus contemporaries (validated God’s foreknowledge of Christ).

51.  The phrase “in these last times” is reference to the present dispensation.  Cp.Heb.1:2

52.  With the incarnation, passion and glorification of Christ, the last age has dawned before the 2nd Advent of Christ (Daniel’s 70th week [the Tribulation] is only a brief resumption of the previous dispensation).

53.  The 1st Advent ushered in the Church Age and this period is designated as “the consummation of the ages”.  Heb.9:26

54.  The C/A is the final era that fills in the gap between the 1st Advent and Christ’s 2nd coming that is divided into two parts, the rapture and 2nd Advent.

55.  The final causal phrase “for the sake of you” highlights the special privilege afforded these Gentile believers that have become a part of the Church.

56.  It harks back to this special dispensation of “grace” in vs.10.

57.  Christ appeared for them in their need of redemption from the slave market of sin.

58.  This phrase is designed to provide a continued reminder truly of the grace that has been afforded those living in the CA.

59.  It points to the fact that the eternal purposes of God are realized when people that are positive come to saving faith.

60.  And just as He foreknew Christ would provide salvation, He foreknew the mass of +V that would make up the nation of nations.  Rom.8:29

61.  God perfectly anticipated that millions upon millions of gentiles would be +V and seek a relationship with Him during CA history.

62.  In turn, He made all provisions for them under the terms of our present dispensation..

63.  This is the sense of vs.21a, “who through Him are believers in God”.

64.   The phrase “through Him/dia, auvto,j – dia autos” is reference to Christ as the agency through Whom mankind is able to have a relationship with God.

65.  Christ Himself taught “I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father, but through Me (dia, evgw, - dia ego).  Joh.14:6

66.   And there is salvation in no one else; for there is no other name under heaven that has been given among men, by which we must be saved.”.  Act.4:12

67.  To believe “in God” refers to God the Father.

68.  True believers in God are people that have acknowledged who and what Christ is (His name/His reputation).

69.  Religious people that do not acknowledge that Jesus is the Son of God who died for their redemption are not genuine believers in God.

70.  Peter then characterizes God as the One “who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory”.

71.  The fact is, all members of the Godhead had a part in Christ’s resurrection.  H.S. Rom.8:11; JC Joh.10:17-18; Father 1Pet.1:21

72.  The emphasis here is to highlight the Father as the Planner of His plan that calls for Jesus resurrection.

73.  Otherwise, all 3 members of the Godhead exercised their omnipotence in unity towards Christ’s humanity.

74.  The only other reference to the Father “giving glory” to the Son is Joh.17:22.

75.  The more familiar expression that that God “glorified” Jesus.  Act.3:13

76.  There is a parallel expression to our verse “to suffer these things and to enter into His glory” in Luk.24:26

77.  The glorification of the deceased humanity of Christ via resurrection, ascension and session validates Christ’s work on the cross.

78.  Believers in Christ are related to a God who can, and has, raised the dead.

79.  God’s perfect plan called for the glorification of His Son.  Isa.4:2 cp.Mat.16:27; 24:30 cf.Isa.59:19-20

80.  So it too calls for believers to be glorified at the right time.  Rom.8:17,30

81.  God not only has perfect insight as to the design of His plan, but as “raising from the dead” profoundly states, He has the power (omnipotence) to fulfill His plan.

82.  “Knowing” (vs.18) this doctrine is designed for the intended result that ends vs.21, “so that your faith and hope are in God”.

83.  Faith” is active and signifies trust in God during our time on earth.

84.  “Hope” looks to the future and our confidence that we too will share in Christ’s glory according to the promises of Scripture.

85.  Knowing that God has all the facts to establish a perfect plan and power to fulfill all aspects of it as evidenced in the Person of Christ should stimulate a complete faith and hope in the POG as applied to our own lives.

86.  Stated otherwise, knowing the doctrine that the Father as the Architect/Planner of the POG has the attributes necessary to see His plan to perfect fruition should encourage believers all the more to adhere to His plan.

87.  Peter has once again in his own way pointed to the Doctrine of the Importance of Bible Doctrine.

88.  The POG (BD) has as its antecedents the foreknowledge and omnipotence of the Father to ensure its perfect execution free from error or mishap.

89.  Peter has come full circle from the springboard of “therefore” (vs.13) beginning this paragraph drawing from the importance of BD as that which is the gauge of +V as evidenced in the zeal to know it and now the very faith and hope by which +V lives.

90.  Hence, we should all the more conduct ourselves according to the teachings of BD to enhance our eternal niche.

91.  Review the Doctrine of Fear.

92.  Review the Doctrine of Redemption.




GNT 1 Peter 1:22 Ta.j yuca.j u`mw/n h`gniko,tej evn th/| u`pakoh/| th/j avlhqei,aj eivj filadelfi,an avnupo,kriton( evk Îkaqara/jÐ kardi,aj avllh,louj avgaph,sate evktenw/j


NAS 1 Peter 1:22 (Revised) Since purifying your souls in obedience to the truth  h`gniko,tej a`gni,zw (circ. ptc/PF/a/nm2p; lit. of ceremonial washings and purification; figuratively of moral cleansing;  "Since purifying/cleansing"; used 7x)  u`mw/n su, (npg-2p; "your")   Ta.j o` yuca.j yuch, (d.a. + n-af-p; "the souls")  evn (Ld)  th/| h` u`pakoh/| u`pakoh, (d.a. + n-Lf-s; "the obedience/submission/compliance"; same as 1:2,14)  th/j h` avlhqei,aj avlh,qeia (d.a. + n-gf-s; subj. gen.; performs the cleansing; "of the truth")  for a genuine love of the brothers,  eivj (pa; "for/into")  avnupo,kriton( avnupo,kritoj (a--af-s; "without hypocrisy/a genuine/sincere"; used 6x)   filadelfi,an filadelfi,a (n-af-s; "brotherly love"; used 6x)  fervently love one another from a pure heart,  evktenw/j (adv.; strictly "in an extended way"; "fervently/eagerly/earnestly)  avgaph,sate avgapa,w (vImpaa--2p; "love")  avllh,louj avllh,lwn (reciprocal pro./am2p; "one another")  evk (pAbl)  kaqara/j kaqaro,j (a--Ablf-s; lit. free from dirt; "a pure/clean/undefiled"; note textual variation; while this word is left out in A B manuscripts; on the strength of p72, a, C, 81, 614; the majority of textual committee prefers its inclusion)  kardi,aj kardi,a (n-Ablf-s; "heart")


1.      Vs.22 concludes the list of 7 commands for the purpose of this section in Peter’s letter (vss.13-25).

2.      The context continues to address that which is necessary to evidence and sustain +V Ph2 that began in vs.13 now adding the final imperative to “love one another”.

3.      Whereas the imperatives of vss.13-17 were designed to address the believer’s personal experience for themselves, vs.22 now directs attention in application to others.

4.      MPR, spiritual sobriety, focus on SG3, isolation of the STA, righteous conduct and righteous fear are all elements of self-discipline and priorities believers are to maintain for themselves.

5.      These disciplines formulate the groundwork to now fulfill the believer’s responsibility toward others of the royal family.

6.      Correct application towards one another should be the natural result of maintaining the previous modus operandi and Vivendi of the believer’s life.

7.      This final imperative in summation caps that necessary to enjoy a successful Ph2.

8.      The evidence of one’s orientation to their faith and hope being in God with the potential of sharing Christ’s glory (vs.21) further demands proper application towards one another.

9.      Staying in form for this particular section, Peter infers another unspoken doctrine as that which underwrites his premise of thought.

10.  Just as he implied the doctrine of the Importance of BD in vss.10-12 as foundational to the imperatives evidencing adjusted +V, so he again draws upon another silent theme as the foundation for vs.22.

11.  All that Christ has done in sacrifice for our redemption in executing the Father’s eternal plan (vss.18-21) is no less than God’s expression towards us under the doctrine of Love.

12.  It is now obvious that Peter has in mind this notion as it now becomes the issue of application at hand for believers.

13.  It adds another layer of intent behind our verse in extension of the previous 6 commands.

14.  That is, as God has so loved us (cp.Joh.3:16) so we should emulate Him in application to one another.

15.  Vs.22 completes the very purpose for our MO and all that determines our holy conduct in likeness to Him.

16.  Employing these two silent themes in essence fulfills the two greatest commandments of the Law as taught by Christ.  Mat.22:36-40

17.  By adhering to the doctrine of the Importance to BD we fulfill the first and by applying Divine love we fulfill the second.

18.  As Mat.22:39-40 make clear, both commandments are the very foundation of maintaining the integrity of God’s plan in application by believers.

19.  Peter has taken the thoughts of these two commandments and cohesively employed them providing the particulars necessary in execution as applied to the Church.

20.  Thus continuity of subject and thought prevail dismissing any notion of an abrupt change in the thinking of Peter as this verse may appear on the surface.

21.  Peter again acknowledges the +V of these saints beginning the paragraph, “Since purifying your souls in obedience to the truth for a genuine love of the brothers”.

22.  The perfect participle of “purifying/avgni,zw – agnizo” indicates something already having occurred.

23.  James uses similar language with respect to believers’ “hearts”.  Jam.4:8

24.  As with James, it indicates a moral cleansing conducive to a non-hypocritical standard for application.

25.  Peter explicitly states the sphere of that standard as “obedience to the truth”.

26.  This is the 3rd time Peter has referenced these believers obedience (vss.2,14).

27.  That their obedience is stated as a given fact indicates their willingness to be both hearers and doers of BD.

28.  Peter’s object of purification is directed towards their “souls/yuch, - pseuche”.

29.  The soul is the “real you” wherein volition resides and effects mankind’s decisions in life.

30.  These believers came to the ultimate conclusion to choose the truth of BD as their standard for life.

31.  In so doing, they have maintained a soul rendered pure (the continuous affect of the participle).

32.  This is evidenced in their orientation to the 1st 6 imperatives.

33.  Through orientation (submission) to the truth they have sustained +V of the soul realizing the very purpose behind their redemption (to be obedient children).

34.  It is fitting that Peter specifies their “souls” as that is what is redeemed at salvation.  Psa.34:22

35.  It highlights the volition of the believer now pertaining to their Ph2.

36.  In conjunction with deliverance from spiritual death Ph1, the soul is further delivered from absolute rulership of the STA.

37.  Rather than allow the STA to conform their lives, as “obedient children” (vs.14) they have allowed BD under the FHS to rule over their souls.

38.  As new converts, these believers had been taught the things necessary to live righteously in the world and before one another.

39.  It was their orientation to the truth that gave these believers a real sense of purpose for being a part of Christianity (God’s family).

40.  This is the sense of the next phrase, “for a genuine love of the brothers”.

41.  The preposition “for/eivj – eis” here emphasizes purpose to indicate the continued manifestation (evidence) of their Ph2 +V.

42.  The term “love of the brothers/filadelfi,a philadelphia” means “brotherly love”.

43.  It is terminology used to indicate the circle of Christian fellowship within the Church/church.  Rom.12:10; 1The.4:9

44.  It is the product of godliness and itself a platform to express love.  2Pet.1:7

45.  This term epitomizes what true Christian fellowship is supposed to be.

46.  All believers become a part of the Church Universal at saving faith for the purpose of true fellowship with like-minded souls in obedience to the truth.

47.  That fellowship is experientially realized through the microcosms of local churches.

48.  Peter leaves no doubt that there is a wrong way and right way to interact with fellow believers employing the term “genuine/avnupo,kritoj –anupokritos” characterizing “brotherly love”.

49.  This adjective occurs 6x in the NT and means “without hypocrisy” or “sincere”:

A.    It is to characterize our love.  Rom.12:9; 2Cor.6:6

B.     Our faith.  1Tim.1:5; 2Tim.1:5

C.     Is indicative of BD.  Jam.3:17

50.  Peter’s emphasis is that true Ph2 fellowship stems from orientation to the truth as the catalyst for spiritual kinship with each other.

51.  This begins at salvation (obeying the gospel Ph1; note vs.2) and experientially is realized Ph2 by adhering to the local church under MPR as obedient children to the truth (cp.vs.14).

52.  Apart from the truth, our participation towards the embodiment of believers is hypocritical and less than holy/righteous.

53.  The English term “genuine” is the better translation compared to “sincere” as one can be sincere but wrong in thought and/or application.

54.  The truth encompasses all the pertinent doctrine necessary to ensure a “pure soul”.

55.  The doctrine has been summarized by the previous 6 commands of vss.13-17.

56.  Only with +V to BD can the believer enjoin fellowship as the “real deal” free from pretense, not phony or fake.

57.  These believers, like the Thessalonians, knew the importance of BD.  1The.4:9-10

58.  Based on their past accomplishments in this aspect of the CWL, Peter inserts a natural exhortation, “fervently love one another from a pure heart”.

59.  That they have oriented to the proper MO and manner of life, they are expected to extend their pursuit of righteousness in application towards one another.

60.  The adverb “evktenw/j -  estenos” literally means “in an extended way” and hence “fervently/eagerly/earnestly”.

61.  It can have the nuance of intensity or constancy.

62.  It is only used otherwise in Act.12:5 and seems to engage both senses.

63.  It has the idea of “relentlessly passionate” in approach.

64.  The verb it modifies “love/avgapa,w – agapao” redefines that which is “genuine” within the fellowship of believers.

65.  This particular verb of the “love” family in the Greek emphasis application based on the attributes of the one expressing love.

66.  It is often called Divine love as it defines the love of God.  Exs. Joh.3:16; 1Joh.4:8,9

67.  The mechanics for this love is best expressed by Jesus’ teaching of the believer’s love for Him, “If you love Me, you will keep My commandments”.  Joh.14:15 cp.24

68.  The believer emulates the love of God when applying BD towards others.  1Joh.2:5; 5:2,3

69.  Peter’s command to “love one another” parallels John’s concern in 1st John.  1Joh.2:10; 3:10,11,14,23; 4:7,20,21

70.  To apply Divine love demands the FHS + application of BD.

71.  The essence of this verb is captured contextually in our verse as it rests upon fulfillment of the 1st 6 imperatives of the previous verses generalized in vs.22a.

72.  That these believers are to love fervently indicates they are not to tire in Divine good production (works) towards fellow believers.

73.  While the believer may attain to an acceptable level of spiritual success for themselves, they are not to rest on their laurels and recognize that the purpose of their spirituality is to further apply towards others.

74.  The adverb “fervently” further implies an unceasing effort to exhaust this avenue of the Christian life, a reality only attainable through death.  Cp.Joh.9:4

75.  The idea is to seek to maximize our increase of application of Divine love.  Cp.Phi.1:9; 1The.3:12

76.  A primary avenue of application in this regard is through the function of the spiritual gifts.  1Pet.4:10

77.  Each believer receives at least one spiritual gift at salvation via God the H.S.  1Cor.12:7,11

78.  The gifts are designed to serve the local body of Christ.

79.  The extant gifts for today establish the appropriate ministries (services) for a properly functioning local church.

80.  These ministries include helps/ministry, teaching, administration/managerial, exhortation, giving and mercy.

81.  While believers may engage in normal application in any of these areas, those with a particular gift should excel in that particular area.

82.  Failure to function under one’s spiritual gift is failure to fulfill one’s ministry before God and diminishes the application of love.

83.  The reciprocal pronoun “one another” means just that; towards fellow believers.

84.  While we are to do good to all men, our priorities in applications are to those of the household of the faith.  Gal.6:10

85.  What can’t be missed is the relevance of Peter’s use of terms for love in this verse as applied to “brotherly love” that denotes the kinship of fellowship and Divine love in application.

86.  If one is going to participate in genuine fellowship it demands adherence to sound doctrine under face-to-face teaching with application to one another.

87.  The principle is that there is no real reciprocal participation of Divine love apart from genuine fellowship with one another as part of a local assembly (they go hand-in-hand).

88.  You cannot be an island to yourself out of Bible class or otherwise and fulfill this royal imperative in the context of genuine fellowship.

89.  Failure to apply to one another is comparable to disregarding the needs of your immediate family.  Cp.1Tim.5:8

90.  The principle is that application to others starts within the faith and then as opportunity provides those outside the church.

91.  To disregard the needs of the saints in preference to others is misplaced loyalty for a genuine love of the brothers.

92.  Spiritual kinship supersedes all other relationships.  Cp.Mat.10:37-42

93.  For these early believers living in a current climate of persecution, their fellowship was all important in the need to support one another in word and deed.

94.  Even so today as a scant minority of believers under sound face-to-face teaching facing the perils of lukewarm Christianity and pervasive evil saturating our current climate.

95.  The final phrase, “from a pure heart” has a textual variance as noted in the parsing.

96.  While the word “pure” is left out of the primary Uncials A,B dated 4 AD, it is retained in the Aleph Uncial parchment along with C dated 4 and 5 AD respectively as well as later parchments dated 6 and 13 AD.

97.  More importantly, it is found in an earlier papyri manuscript p72 dated 3-4 AD giving weight to its original inclusion.

98.  The adjective “pure/kaqaro,j – katharos” literally means “free from dirt” and hence morally “clean or undefiled”.

99.  The noun “heart/kardi,a – kardia” is admittedly ambiguous in its figurative uses.

100.          A word study shows it may highlight the mind (Mat.5:28), motives/intentions (Mat.6:21; 12:34), spirit or soul (Mat.11:29), base desires of life (Mat.15:19), isolation of the STA (Rom.2:29) individually or simply facilitate the core essence of what we are (currently) in relation to our soul and minds (Mat.22:37).

101.          Contextually the adjective “pure” here best fits the idea in Jam.3:14 to emphasize isolation of the STA applying with pure motives.

102.          A pure heart highlights the FHS within the application of love or otherwise as Peter and James both contend implicitly and explicitly the believer is not oriented to the truth.

103.          Letting the STA rule negates love from a pure heart.

104.          A pure heart specifically proclaims that whatever other love one may proclaim for another, if it is not applied in fellowship and with the correct motive of application of BD, it is not Divinely sponsored.

105.          It points to the fact that BD under the rulership of the H.S. is to be that which motivates the believer in all that they do.

106.          One’s relationship, feelings or other external experience should be at best only secondary as to why we apply to each other.

107.          The fact of the matter is that believers need the fellowship of other likeminded +V for encouragement in application to further sustain one’s own +V for a successful Ph2.

108.          To embrace likeminded believers that make BD their #1 priority for all that they do provides us with spiritual support and encouragement not attainable otherwise.

109.          To try and run the race alone is abnormal and at best robs the believer of the SG3 that comes from loving one another.

110.          Believers are to rally around those of the royal family in application with a continued unified support logistically and spiritually to exemplify an un-hypocritical love of the brothers.

111.          This is a primary reason why believers are provided redemption so they too can fulfill God’s plan for their lives in service to each other.  Gal.5:13

112.          For those that want a definition of Ph2 +V qualified as wreath contenders, Peter has clearly defined the parameters:

A.    MPR (gird your minds for action, vs.13).

B.     Separation from the human viewpoint/STA counterparts to BD (keep sober, vs.13).

C.     Tunnel vision to SG3 (fix your hope completely…,vs.13).

D.    Isolation of the STA (do not be conformed to the former lusts…,vs.14).

E.     Pursuit of Ph2 righteousness (be holy…,vs.15).

F.      Live in righteous fear of failing one’s Ph2 course (vs.17).

G.    Fervently love one another (vs.22).

113.          Believers that adhere to these 7 royal imperative are believers that adhere to the doctrine of the Importance of BD and the doctrine of Love.

114.          These believers harmonize with the 2 greatest commandments given to men under the Law.




GNT 1 Peter 1:23 avnagegennhme,noi ouvk evk spora/j fqarth/j avlla. avfqa,rtou dia. lo,gou zw/ntoj qeou/ kai. me,nontojÅ


NAS 1 Peter 1:23 for you have been born again avnagegennhme,noi avnagenna,w (circ. causal ptc./PF/p/nm2p; "Since having been born again"; same vs.3; answers "why" or "reason" for the action of the main  verb "love" in vs.22)   not of seed which is perishable but imperishable, ouvk ouv (neg.; "not")  evk (pAbl.; indicates source; "of from/of)  spora/j spora, (n-Ablf-s; as an activity "sowing"; that which is sown "seed"; metaphorical of that producing spiritual life; used 1x)  fqarth/j fqarto,j(a--Ablf-s; "perishable/corruptible/transitory"; same as vs.28)  avlla, (strong advers.)  avfqa,rtou a;fqartoj (a--Ablf-s; "imperishable"; same as vs.4)  that is, through the living and abiding word of God.   dia, (pAbl; "through/by"; denotes agency)  zw/ntoj za,w (adj.ptc./p/a/Ablm-s; "the living")  kai, (cc)  me,nontojÅ me,nw (adj.ptc./p/a/Ablm-s; "abiding/enduring/ residing")  lo,gou lo,goj (n-Ablm-s; "word")   qeou/ qeo,j (n-gm-s; "of God")


GNT 1 Peter 1:24 dio,ti pa/sa sa.rx w`j co,rtoj kai. pa/sa do,xa auvth/j w`j a;nqoj co,rtou\ evxhra,nqh o` co,rtoj kai. to. a;nqoj evxe,pesen\


NAS 1 Peter 1:24 For, "All flesh is like grass, And all its glory like the flower of grass.  dio,ti (causal conj.; "For/Inasmuch as")  pa/sa pa/j (a--nf-s; "all")  sa,rx (n-nf-s; "flesh")  w`j (compar.conj.; "is like")  co,rtoj (n-nm-s; "grass/field grass"; used 15x; cf. Jam.1:10,11)  kai, (cc)  pa/sa pa/j (a--nf-s)  auvth/j auvto,j (npgf3s; "its"; fem. antecedent = "flesh")  do,xa (n-nf-s; "glory")  w`j (compar. conj.; "like")  a;nqoj (n-nn-s; "flower/blossom"; used 4x; Jam.1:10,11)  co,rtou\ co,rtoj (n-gm-s; "of grass")  The grass withers, And the flower falls off,   o` co,rtoj (d.a. + n-nm-s; "the grass")  evxhra,nqh xhrai,nw (viap--3s; "is caused to wither/dry out"; same as Jam.1:11)  kai, (cc)  to, a;nqoj (d.a. + n-nn-s)  evxe,pesen\ evkpi,ptw (viaa--3s; "falls off"; see Jam.1:11)


GNT 1 Peter 1:25 to. de. r`h/ma kuri,ou me,nei eivj to.n aivw/naÅ tou/to de, evstin to. r`h/ma to. euvaggelisqe.n eivj u`ma/jÅ


NAS 1 Peter 1:25 But the word of the Lord abides forever."  de, (ch)  to, r`h/ma (d.a. + n-nn-s; "the speech/utterance/communicated word"; emphasizes BD verbally proclaimed; cf.2Pet.3:2;  used 68x)  ku,rioj (n-gm-s; "of the Lord")  me,nei me,nw (vipa--3s; "keeps on abiding")  eivj o` aivw/naÅ aivw,n (prep. + d.a. + n-am-s; lit.; "into the ages"; "forever")  And this is the word which was preached to you.   de, (cc; "And/Now")  tou/to ou-toj (near; "this thing"; emphasizing the immediate teaching of doctrine)   evstin eivmi, (vipa--3s; "keeps on being")  to, r`h/ma (d.a. + n-nn-s; "the word/spoken doctrine")  to, euvaggelisqe.n euvaggeli,zw (d.a. + adj.ptc./a/p/nn-s; "having been preached/proclaimed")  eivj u`ma/jÅ su, (pa + npa-2p; lit. "into you all"; functions as a simple dative grammatically)


1.      Peter retains the thought of loving one another (vs.22) while advancing the reasons why and how.

2.      This is the force of the causal participle “for (since) you have been born again”.

3.      Peter draws upon the logical conclusion of their new birth as believers (vs.3) as the catalyst for the dynamics of their love for one another.

4.      That is, the kind of love called for is based on a new order of existence.

5.      This birth from above is the regeneration of the human spirit that brings the believer into a new spiritual dimension in life.

6.      We are by God’s grace and power a new species (2Cor.5:17) and therefore by extension we are empowered to function as a new species of humanity.

7.      This function is expressed towards others as love that marks us as Christ’s disciples.  Joh.13:34

8.      Regeneration of the human spirit is the by-product of God the H.S. (Joh.3:6) and functions in tandem with Him.  Cf.Rom.8:16  See the Doctrine of Regeneration

9.      The new birth inducts the individual into the family of God and our spirit is viewed as one spirit with Christ.  1Cor.6:17

10.  The believer acquires a new spiritual dimension that is created in righteousness set apart to the truth.  Eph.4:24

11.  With this spiritual entity the believer in tandem with the filling of God the H.S. is able to isolate the “old man/STA” and put on the “new man”.  Cp.Eph.4:22-24; Col.3:10

12.  When we put on the “new man” we exude the fruit of the Spirit in love with its synonymous characteristics.  Gal.5:22-23

13.  This in contrast to being led by the STA.  Gal.5:19-21

14.  This reality defines the “agapao” love Peter is referring to in vs.22.

15.  Divine love in reciprocal action towards one another ( looks to the spiritual attributes associated with the human spirit as the standards for application and true fellowship (righteousness and truth).

16.  The proper love believers are to have is predicated on this new spiritual nature not brought about by the natural order of physical things.

17.  This is the sense of the following phrase, “not of seed which is perishable but imperishable”.

18.  The noun “seed/spora, - spora” in the feminine gender is only used here and emphasizes the process of sowing the seed.

19.  This in contrast to the more widely used neuter noun “spe,rma – sperma/seed” emphasizing the seed itself (used 43x).

20.  Regeneration plainly suggests a like concept to human procreation.  Cf.Joh.1:13; 3:4

21.  The idea Peter is getting across is to think about how regeneration has been made possible.

22.  This as preliminary to understanding the very nature of the seed itself.

23.  He then starkly contrasts the fact that it is not “sowed” with that which is perishable but imperishable.

24.  The adjective “perishable/fqarto,j – phthartos” may have the nuance of “corruptible” and/or transitory/temporal.

25.  Its antonym “imperishable/a;fqartoj – aphthartos” means the exact opposite.

26.  This verse highlights the two natures the believer possesses.

27.  The corruptible and transitory nature of the flesh/STA.

28.  The incorruptible and eternal nature of the human spirit.  2Pet.1:4

29.  How we have become partakers of God’s Divine nature is via the new man.  Eph.4:24

30.  There is similarity of thought in vs.18 “knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold…but (alla) with the precious blood…of Christ”

31.  What redeems mankind was Christ’s ransom of +R via spiritual death in His work on the cross.

32.  He paid with His human spirit that was incorruptible (+R) and eternal so that we as believers may be born again with our own human spirit in one with Him.

33.  This so we may clothe ourselves with the human spirit overruling the STA.

34.  Christ’s work on the cross expresses God’s love for man to share with Christ in His eternal glory by providing us with our own +R and eternal human spirit.

35.  Peter’s logical deduction is that “since” our human spirit was conceived in such fashion and for such purpose, this is why and how believers should employ this new spiritual dimension of love to one another?

36.  The human spirit in the expression of Divine love (realized through Christ) is the bond of citizenry for all believers now part of the kingdom of God (cf.Phi.3:20).

37.  The conceptual idea at hand is that the soul (redeemed at salvation) is impregnated via regeneration for the purpose of nurturing its offspring emulating this expression of Divine love.

38.  Peter then expresses the agency that provides the nurturing, “that is, through the living and abiding word of God”.

39.  Interpreters often confine Peter’s teaching here to salvation Ph1.

40.  However, while that is assumed, Ph2 “love” contextually remains the focus.

41.  Peter has come full circle now reintegrating the doctrine of the Importance of BD explicitly to finalize his thoughts for this section (see notes beginning vs.13).

42.  It is the WOG that draws together the soul with the human spirit to bring about their unified state.

43.  BD serves in analogy as the male suitor to the soul (yuch, - psueche, fem.gender that coincides with the fem. gender for “sowing”).

44.  When +V of the soul responds, the perfect match is made for regeneration to occur.

45.  BD serves as the authoritative counterpart to the soul (+V) both for the inception of regeneration (gospel Ph1; cf.Tit.3:5; 1Joh.5:1) and providing the continued nurturing of its existence (gospel Ph2; Col.3:10; cp.Eph.4:23-24).

46.  That these Asian Christians are already “regenerated” (vs.3), it is the continued Ph2 development of the human spirit that is in view.

47.  Just as a father with children makes provision, so does the WOG provide for this new spiritual entity (the WOG is the Provider/provider).

48.  The human spirit is called “doctrine man”.

49.  It is our personal spiritual vessel designed to contain BD and foster spiritual growth in our lives.

50.  The whole of our spiritual development is dependent upon choosing the truth of BD as the standard upon which our human spirit operates.

51.  Otherwise, we disregard our “child” conceived in Divine love and instead nurture “the old man”.

52.  BD is the only “food” with which the human spirit can grow up and prosper.

53.  That because only BD has the eternal and incorruptible “nutrients” compatible to its eternal and incorruptible nature.

54.  Physical things in life are irrelevant to the existence of the human spirit.

55.  The human spirit is our passport to heaven (+R) and exemplifies all that eternal life has to offer.

56.  That it is eternal and spiritual in essence, it is solely dependent up that which is eternal and spiritual also.

57.  These attributes are attributed to the WOG with the adjectival participles “living and abiding”.

58.  Both participles indicate that BD is based on God’s Divine attributes.

59.  The verb “living/za,w – zao” highlights the reality of His spiritual existence and incorruptibility of His word.

60.  God’s eternality is dependent upon His perfect moral attributes or He would cease to exist as God.

61.  God is perfect veracity and +R and thus so is His word.  Psa.119:160; 138:2; Joh.17:7

62.  Righteousness is that which sustains life.  Pro.12:28

63.  Truth is the expression of God’s love compatible with His righteousness.  Psa.85:10; 89:14

64.  We are commanded not to “…live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.  Mat.4:4

65.  Without BD, the human spirit is left unfed.

66.  BD is the agency through which the believer sustains a “living hope” for all that regeneration will reveal in our resurrection.  1Pet.1:3

67.  Without it, the believer will not enjoy all of the blessings associated with our eternal home with all the SG3 inheritance that is also imperishable and eternal.  1Pet.1:4

68.  The verb “abiding/me,nw – meno” has the nuance of “enduring” and emphasizes God’s eternality.

69.  Just as God is eternal, so is His word (cf.vs.25a).  Cf.Mat.24:34

70.  The phrase, “word of God” is a collective singular viewing the entirety of the written word of the Bible as a whole.

71.  Peter may have further thought with respect to Jesus Christ as the embodiment of BD as He is also called “the Word/o` lo,goj – ho Logos” (with the d.a.).  Joh.1:1,14

72.  In vs.24-25a, Peter now amplifies just how important BD is with respect to our new eternal condition.

73.  He appeals to Isa.40:6-8, “All flesh is like grass, And all its glory like the flower of grass.  The grass withers And the flower falls off”.

74.  Peter brings out the reality of the transitory life of mankind.

75.  Jam.1:10 also alludes indirectly to this text to illustrate the transitory nature of riches.

76.  Peter uses it to highlight life itself and all the temporal achievements, acquisitions and successes of pursuit that man may acquire in life.

77.  This is emphasized by two key words in the analogy, “flesh and glory”.

78.  Flesh is likened to the green grass of spring that eventually dries out and dies.

79.  Glory is likened to wild flowers in bloom that also eventually dies and is lost.

80.  The flesh in view looks to humanity and eventual death due to his mortality.

81.  The flesh’s glory illustrates all the things in life that man may attain that will be left behind due to his mortality.

82.  All of these things are physical and temporal and subject to corruption and death/decay.

83.  The metaphor is appropriate as the life cycle and perishable nature of plants is relatively short and pictures the human condition.

84.  As mankind is engaged in life, his sense of existence in contrast to eternality is subjective at best.

85.  The metaphor objectively puts life in its proper perspective.

86.  Just as the imagery of beautiful grass and flowers of the fields can be breathtaking and distractive to the observer, so man is often enthralled and distracted by the physical things in life.

87.  However, before one knows it, it is all over and that which seemed so captivating to the flesh is gone.

88.  By contrast, though man’s generational life and glory fades away, “But the word of the Lord abides forever”.