FINAL EXHORTATIONS AND CLOSING REMARKS
SOLIDARITY WITH THE ELDERS
EXEGESIS VERSE 1:
GNT 1 Peter 5:1 Presbute,rouj ou=n evn u`mi/n parakalw/ o` sumpresbu,teroj kai. ma,rtuj tw/n tou/ Cristou/ paqhma,twn( o` kai. th/j mellou,shj avpokalu,ptesqai do,xhj koinwno,j\
NAS 1 Peter 5:1 (Revised) Therefore, I exhort the elders among you, as your fellow elder and witness of the sufferings of Christ, ou=n (infer. conj.; "Therefore") parakalw/ parakale,w (vipa--1s; "I exhort/call along side"; same as 2:11) Presbute,rouj presbu,teroj (ap-am-p; "elders/presbyters"; used 66x; emphatic position) evn (pL; of location; "among") u`mi/n su, (npd-2p) o` sumpresbu,teroj (d.a. + n-nm-s; "the fellow elder"; hapax; the singular identifies the one exhorting hence, "as a fellow elder") kai, (cc) ma,rtuj (n-nm-s; "witness"; used 34x) tw/n to, paqhma,twn( pa,qhma (d.a. + n-gn-p; "the sufferings"; same as 1:11; 4:13) tou/ o` Cristou/ Cristo,j (d.a. + n-gm-s; objective gen.; "of the Christ") also a partaker of the glory that is to be revealed, kai, (adjunct.; "also") o` koinwno,j\ (d.a. + n-nm-s; "the partaker/sharer/partner"; used 10x) th/j h` do,xhj do,xa (d.a. + n-gf-s; "of the glory") mellou,shj me,llw (suppl. ptc./p/a/gf-s; "coming about/destined/about to") avpokalu,ptesqai avpokalu,ptw (compl. inf./pp; "to be revealed"; same as 1:5,12)
ANALYSIS VERSE 1:
1. Peter now begins to wind down the epistle with some final exhortations and warnings.
2. He will take opportunity to again highlight specific groups of believers (cp.2:18; 3:1,7) in vss.1-5a, before resuming a general address in vs.5b.
3. He will conclude with a doxology (vs.11) and individual acknowledgements (vss.12-14) lending the epistle a personal touch of authenticity.
4. His individual exhortation begins vs.1 maintaining the momentum of the theme of suffering as brought out by the inferential conjunction “Therefore/ou-n – oun”.
5. The conjunction looks back to vss.12-19 that highlighted the intensity of undeserved suffering.
6. Specifically as suffering brought about by the opposition of Satan’s world with unrighteous judgment and the need for believers to hold fast the Christian faith to enjoy God’s righteous judgment.
7. The crisis of “opposing judgments” in the midst of the A/C demands that these believers adhere to God’s will faith-resting in the teaching of BD (vs.19).
8. Peter therefore now turns to those responsible to ensure that local churches have the advantage of sound teaching, “I exhort the elders among you”.
9. As vs.2 makes clear, “the elders” in view are Pastor-Teachers/Prophets responsible for shepherding “the flock of God”.
10. That Peter appeals with a pastoral metaphor places the office of P-T center stage in his exhortation.
11. Peter recognizes the gravity of this office designed to carry the Church throughout the bulk of the CA singularly replacing the other temporary communicative gifts. Cp.2Pet.2:1 (infers a transition from prophets to teachers)
12. The etymology of the adjective “elders/Presbute,roj – Presbuteros” indicates an evolution of taking on this more technical reference:
A. In the OT its meaning was first used to denote chronological age (Gen.27:15) and then was adopted to refer to those holding positions of authority both religiously and politically (Exo.3:16,18; et al).
This nuance carried forward into NT times with
reference to the religious/political leaders of
C. As the Church progressed in history, this term was adopted to refer to those that held office in the Church. Cp.Act.4:23 to 14:23
D. Initially, an elder was distinct from an Apostle (Act.15:2), but later it absorbed even that office (Pet.5:1; 2Joh.1:1; 3Joh.1:1).
E. Most specifically, while its use can refer to both offices of P-T’s and deacons (1Tim.5:17), it highlights overseers/bishops in office (cp.Act.20:17 cp.vs.28).
13. Adjusted spiritual leadership was essential to the cohesion and unity of these churches as they faced a common crisis.
14. The term “elders” is the first word of the Greek sentence designed to emphatically draw their attention to the exhortation.
15. This because of the very nature of their office being a leader and open advocate of the truth.
16. These place themselves on the front lines of the A/C as primary targets for attack.
17. The verb “exhort/parakale,w – parakaleo” means to “call along side”.
18. It serves as a rallying call for these P-T’s to continue to stand-fast as spiritual leaders and not to waver on their part in the face of cosmic attacks.
19. Peter is then quick to establish a common bond between himself and them when he refers to himself “as your fellow elder/o` sumpresbu,teroj - sumpresbuteros (hapax)”.
20. Peter’s ad hoc formulation (“fellow elder”) is completely natural in light of “fellow servant” (e.g., Col.1:7; 4:7) and “fellow worker” (e.g., Rom.16:3,9,21; 2Cor.8:23; Philm.1,24).
21. While Peter at this late date in his ministry still considered himself an apostle (1:1), he makes it clear that his modus operandi is essentially the same as theirs.
22. Peter’s intention is to establish collegiality (power-sharing) with the elders in the churches to which he writes.
23. Although his apostolic authority is not made explicit here, we should not be misled by his modest stance, as if he was presenting himself as their authoritative equal.
24. His reference to himself as “the elder” is the same as that of John in 2Joh.1 and 3Joh.1 (ov presbu,teroj).
25. While the term is not synonymous with “apostle”, both are compatible, with “elder” being secondary to “apostle” in authority.
26. He uses this term to indicate that the elders have his full support since he is in the trenches with them.
27. Peter thus establishes rapport with the elders in
28. His appeal to the “elders” provides the occasion for an explicit self-reference, the first since his opening phrase, “apostle of Jesus Christ”, in 1Pet.1:1.
29. The second of three self-designations, “and witness of the sufferings of Christ” is linked by a common definite article (d.a.).
30. The nominative masculine singular of the d.a. before “fellow elder” also serves the n.m.s. noun “witness/ma,rtuj - martus” with both connected by “and/kai, - kai”.
31. In Greek syntax, this is called the “Granville Sharp” rule (named after its discoverer and a.k.a. a “hendiadys”).
32. In Greek, when two nouns are connected by “and” (kai,), and the d.a. precedes only the first noun, there is a close connection between the two.
33. That connection indicates some sort of equality as with the hyphenated “P-T” (Eph.4:11) and a literal English translation would be “the fellow elder–witness”.
34. The dual designation indicates identification with the Pastors on two fronts.
35. The application of this rule influences how we interpret the second of Peter’s self-designations - “witness of the sufferings of Christ”.
36. It first rules out the view that says Peter is referring to his eyewitness experience with respect to Jesus’ Passion, since these elders were not “fellow” eyewitnesses.
37. Though many interpreters understand the phrase so, there is much to be said against what might seem obvious on the surface.
38. This interpretation (namely, that Peter was an eyewitness to the Passion) is at odds not only with the grammar, but also with the fact that Peter could hardly be described in a strict sense as a spectator of the Passion.
39. Peter fled the scene shortly after Jesus’ arrest, and along with the other disciples went into hiding. Cp.Mar.14:27,50; only John is recorded as being at the cross cf.Joh.19:26,27
40. We know he was an eyewitness of Christ’s public ministry and resurrection, having seen Christ after the event. Cf.Act.2:32; 3:15; 10:39,41
41. Yet, again, where is any evidence the same held true for these elders?
42. How then could he refer to himself as a hands-on witness in association with the elders?
43. Is Peter saying that both he and they are witnesses of the truth of Christ’s sufferings, and if so, why and how?
44. In 2Pet.1:16, he uses a separate term to describe himself as an “eyewitness” (evpo,thj - epotes) of the Transfiguration.
45. That term describes one that is an “on-looker/observer” of events.
46. Out term “witness/ma,rtuj – martus” carries a nuance of someone having a first hand experience as to the event. Cf.Mat.18:16; 26:65; Act.1:8 (implies no need for any further involved); etc.
47. The problem finds its completed solution in the final clause “also a partaker of the glory that is to be revealed”.
48. The noun “a partaker/o` koinwno,j – ho koinonos” is the cognate to the verb “share (koinwne,w – koinoneo) used in 4:13, that emphasized a common participation in “the sufferings of Christ”.
49. Peter uses a parallelism between “witness” and “partaker” and 1Pet.4:13, where he displays a correspondence between “sharing” Christ’s sufferings and now in our verse “sharing” His glory.
50. In other words, he is claiming to be a “witness of the sufferings of Christ” in a deeper sense of himself suffering for his testimony.
51. This in identifying with the Pastors as to their own sufferings of Christ.
52. Peter was a living testimony to the sufferings of Christ, as he suffered the same kinds of things Christ suffered for the same reasons.
53. This interpretation satisfies the grammar, the context, and the historical facts.
54. The Asian elders were co-witnesses to what it meant to be a believer leading a congregation in the fires of the Angelic Conflict.
55. Phi.3:10 sheds light on this interpretation. Cp.1The.2:14
56. The Greek syntax has the force of carrying “fellow” to the second noun, “witness”.
57. Peter, as an apostle and elder, was at one with the Asian elders in their present tribulations.
58. The third noun dealing with self-designation, “partaker”, stands apart from the first two nouns, having its own definite article.
59. But “partaker” is connected with the preceding noun, “witness”, by the adjunctive use of “also/kai, - kai”.
60. Here, the sharing is in the vindicating “glory/h` do,xa – he doxa” that parallels the 1st hand experience of sharing Christ’s sufferings.
61. Obviously, there is a sharp contrast between the two physical states, as it is in the case of Christ’s experience (1Pet.1:11).
62. The contrast (suffering vs. glory) is obvious and the comparison is extraordinary. Cf.Rom.8:18; 1Pet.1:6,7; 4:13
63. “The glory that is to be revealed” refers to the coming of Christ at the Rapture.
64. Peter looks ahead to the time when he and they (and we) will partake of Ph3 glory according to the measure of our Ph2 willingness to suffer all the things that adherence to BD brings into our lives.
65. The “glory that is to be revealed” holds reward of particular significance for spiritual shepherds, and thus for Peter himself, as specified in v.4.
DO’S AND DON’TS OF PASTORS
EXEGESIS VERSES 2 – 3:
GNT 1 Peter 5:2 poima,nate to. evn u`mi/n poi,mnion tou/ qeou/ Îevpiskopou/ntejÐ mh. avnagkastw/j avlla. e`kousi,wj kata. qeo,n( mhde. aivscrokerdw/j avlla. proqu,mwj(
NAS 1 Peter 5:2 shepherd the flock of God among you, poima,nate poimai,nw (vImpaa--2p; "shepherd/pastor"; used 11x) to, poi,mnion (d.a. + n-an-s; "the flock; used 5x) tou/ o` qeou/ qeo,j (d.a. + n-gm-s) evn (pL of location) u`mi/n su, (npL-2p) exercising oversight evpiskopou/ntej evpiskope,w (imperat. ptc./p/a/nm2p; "exercising oversight/overseeing"; used 2x; textual variance: included in some important manuscripts [p72; a2; A] and omitted in others [a*; B]. Has no theological bearing in either case. Seems these verbs are to parallel 2:25 where the cognate nouns "poimen" and "episkopos" i.e., "Shepherd and Guardian" are used. The imperatival ptc. is also Peter's style.) not under compulsion, but voluntarily, according to the will of God; mh, (neg. +) avnagkastw/j (adv.; "not under compulsion/not unwillingly"; hapax) avlla, (strong advers.) e`kousi,wj (adv.; "willingly/voluntarily/with willful intent"; used 2x, Heb.10:26) kata, (pa; "according to") qeo,n( qeo,j (n-am-s) and not for sordid gain, but with eagerness; mhde, (neg. conj.; "and not/nor yet") aivscrokerdw/j (adv.; "covetously/for sordid gain"; hapax) avlla, (strong advers.) proqu,mwj( (adv.; "eagerly/readily"; used 1x; in the LXX "zealously" 2Chr.29:34)
GNT 1 Peter 5:3 mhdV w`j katakurieu,ontej tw/n klh,rwn avlla. tu,poi gino,menoi tou/ poimni,ou\
NAS 1 Peter 5:3 nor yet as lording it over those allotted to your charge, mhdV mhde, (neg. conj.; "nor yet/and not") w`j (compar. conj. manner; "as") katakurieu,ontej katakurieu,w (imperat. ptc./p/a/nm2p; "lording over/abusing authority"; used 4x) tw/n o` klh,rwn klh/roj (d.a. + n-gm-p "the ones assigned/allotted/proportioned share"; used 11x) but proving to be examples to the flock. avlla, (strong advers.) gino,menoi gi,nomai (imperat. ptc./p/d/nm2p; "proving") tu,poi tu,poj (n-nm-p; "examples/patterns"; used 15x) tou/ to, poimni,ou\ poi,mnion (d.a. + n-gn-s; gen. ref.; "to the flock"; same as 5:2)
ANALYSIS VERSES 2 – 3:
1. Peter now addresses the particulars of his exhortation mentioned in vs.1.
2. Vs.2 makes clear the pastoral function of the elders, “shepherd the flock of God among you, exercising oversight”.
3. The metaphorical use of the aorist imperative “shepherd/poimai,nw – poimaino” conjures up all of the pastoral visuals of a shepherd tending his sheep.
4. The aorist tense serves as a “snapshot” of the life of shepherds throughout the CA establishing a pattern of behavior expected from all that hold office.
5. The command to “shepherd” echoes Jesus’ command to Peter in Joh.21:16, “Shepherd My Sheep”.
6. As that passage makes clear, the primary responsibility placed upon shepherds is to teach BD. Cp.21:15: “feed (bo,skw – bosko) My Lambs”; 21:17 “feed My sheep”.
7. The core of shepherding comes through the consistent study/teach routine of Bible class.
8. It is through the understanding of BD that both the Pastor and sheep recognize the rules and guidelines expected of both parties.
9. It is BD that the Pastor provides that is designed to protect believers from all of the dangers and pitfalls of living in Satan’s world.
10. It is the Pastor’s responsibility to establish the time for Bible class to which his sheep are to respond. Cp.Joh.10:3-4
11. Peter then makes clear that the sheep belong neither to him or the elders but is “the flock of God”.
12. The singular noun with the d.a. “flock/poi,mnion – poimnion” consolidates all of the sheep in view as a corporate entity.
13. The phrase “flock of God” looks to the totality of the Church Universal as further supported by the following phrase “among you”.
14. Peter recognizes that believers belong first and foremost to the Father.
15. Jesus taught that all of His sheep were given to Him by the Father in Joh.10:27-29.
16. Christ who laid down His life for the sheep gathers those +V Ph1 and Ph2.
17. This universal “flock” are a.k.a. “the
18. The genitive “of God” is possessive in this case.
19. That the Father has given all things to the Son (Joh.3:35; 13:3), Christ is exalted as the “Good Shepherd” (Joh.10:11,14), “The Great Shepherd (Heb.13:20) or as Peter states, “the Chief Shepherd” (1Pet.5:4).
20. Christ is the head of the Church (Eph.1:22; 5:23; Col.1:18) of which Pastors are made “sub-shepherds” given the responsibility to oversee local churches in His absence.
21. That local churches are of issue is also implied by the phrase “among you”.
22. This phrase suggests allotment, or assignment (Act.20:28) and geographical locale.
23. In other words, right Pastor/right congregation.
24. While shepherding highlights Pastor’s as “providers” (feeding) for the sheep, Peter then specifically acknowledges their matching roles as “protectors/defenders”.
25. This is the nuance of the following imperatival participle, “exercising oversight/ evpiskope,w – episkopeo”.
26. The verb is used one other time in Heb.12:15
translated “See to it” in exhortation
to the Saints in
27. The cognate noun “overseer(s)/evpi,skopoj – episkopos” is used 5x, 4x exclusively for Pastors differentiated from deacons (Act.20:28; Phi.1:1; 1Tim.3:2; Tit.1:7) and 1x for Christ (1Pet.2:25 “Guardian”).
28. While there is a textual question as to whether this verb was omitted from the original manuscript, the exegete must acknowledge the cognate nouns in 1Pet.2:25.
29. The nouns “poimen/Shepherd” and “episkopos/Guardian” used of Christ in 2:25 describe Jesus’ role as the “Chief/Good/Great Shepherd”.
30. It is only logical to conclude that Peter now uses the corresponding verbs to articulate the roles of His under-shepherds taking care of His “flock” in His absence.
31. The main idea of Pastoral oversight emphasizes the management qualities necessary to ensure the integrity of the church.
32. It denotes his authority derived from God and ordained by man in defending of the faith that in turn defends those +V that align with sound teaching.
33. The Pastor’s protecting of the flock is as a result of ensuring that sound BD is the standard used in managing his church.
34. The only partiality to be exercised in governing of believers is BD.
35. Friendships, family, positions, etc., are not to be the primary issue of how the Pastor enforces his authority.
36. He is to subscribe strictly to BD as the ultimate authority in regulating all that the church and its individual believers do as part of the corporate entity.
37. Peter then gives summary examples of the approach Pastors are to employ otherwise fulfilling their obligations before God.
38. He does so by presenting 3 pairs of contrasting negatives with positives:
A. “Not under compulsion, but voluntarily, according to the will of God”.
B. “And not for sordid gain, but with eagerness”.
C. Vs.3: “Nor yet as lording it over those allotted to your charge, but proving to be examples to the flock”.
39. Each pair of contrasts are established with the strong adversative “but/avlla, - alla” indicating a parallel opposite.
40. Each pair indicates the personal struggles faced in the ministry in reaction to rejection, indifference and failure to apply the teaching and otherwise tedious study/teach routine.
41. These are pressures Peter knows 1st hand as a “fellow elder”.
42. Further, each pair demands a primary focus to excel in the right application.
43. Each of the negatives is brought about by failure to isolate the STA and otherwise engage in the energy of the flesh.
44. The focus of the 1st contrast is that the Pastor must keep his eyes on God and not men or self.
45. The phrase “not under compulsion/mh, avnagkastw/j – me anagkastos” is a hapax and is set against the adverb “voluntarily/e`kousi,wj – hekousios” used 2x.
46. The other use of “hekousios” is in Heb.10:26 where it is used in a bad sense of “intentionally/deliberately”.
47. In a good sense, it would mean to “do with good will” or “with the right intent” set forth in accomplishing a deliberate purpose.
48. Here the purpose is “according to the will of God”.
49. The Pastor is to keep before him the standard expected of +V maintaining a desire to fulfill his ministry in accord with BD.
50. This would include the right MA of freely serving God recognizing Him as his Master. Cp.Col.3:23
51. His office is to maintain the same intensity of “aspiration/ambition” that underwrote his initial desires to enter the ministry. Cf.1Tim.3:1
52. Being an adjusted Pastor means staying “fired up” as a result of maintaining the FHS and function of his spiritual gift. Cf.2:Tim.1:6
53. Otherwise, there might be any number of reasons a Pastor might serve “under compulsion” that equates to less than God’s standards.
54. Various distractions, pursuits and pressures might cause him to falter in his duties.
55. Compulsive behavior comes from energy of the flesh in seeking the approbation of men, power, monetary and other lust trends.
56. It can be the result of “resignation” reacting to a niche often unflattering and unappreciated.
57. Due to personal testing (financial, relationships, health) often coupled with opposition to the teaching; the Pastor may be compelled to reach for STA alternatives for relief.
58. Not sticking to the straight and narrow has led many ministries to compromise doctrine to monetarily and numerically advance their cause.
59. Hirelings operate under compulsion and will abandon the sheep under pressure. Cp.Joh.10:12,13
60. When a Pastor gets his eyes on people or self, he can easily slip into the mode of obligation to STA sponsored agendas rather than BD.
61. Much the same concern is expressed with respect to church leaders in Heb.13:17.
62. Those things not edifying or spiritually profitable become priorities of the ministry rather than God’s will being accomplished through a properly functioning church.
63. The focus of the 2nd contrast is keeping his eyes on SG3.
64. Again, Peter employs two adverbs to denote the opposing force of the STA seeking to upset the Pastor’s momentum.
65. The adverb “sordid gain/aivscrokerdw/j – aischrokerdos” is another hapax.
66. It indicates obtaining something illicitly motivated by lust or greed.
67. It is construed as having a nuance of fraud.
68. This concept is then set against the idea of “eagerness/proqu,mwj – prothumos” used 1x in the NT.
69. In the LXX, this adverb means “zealously” (2Chr.29:34; Heb. translated “more conscientious”).
70. The question is, how is “illicit gain” a parallel opposite to “eagerness”?
71. Commentaries readily recognize the idea that the Pastor is not to be in the ministry just for the money.
72. However, the idea goes beyond that to include using the ministry to profit oneself in any illegitimate way.
73. Peter is instructing the elders to avoid any tendencies to pursue prosperity at the expense of Divine good and eternal reward. Cf.Tit.3:8 cp.Jam.4:13
74. The contrasting eagerness to illicit gain emphasizes the Pastor maintaining his zeal by remaining motivated to maximize his SG3 account.
75. Vs.4 epitomizes the ultimate legit profit for the Pastor that endures.
76. The P-T must keep his STA overruled when facing the pressures of limited physical assets often associated with the ministry.
77. This would include seeking additional employment at the expense of his role as shepherd and protector whereas existing living grace remains sufficient.
78. The P-T must have the confidence that God will supply his needs and wants in spite of lack of application that the ministry is made dependent.
79. The P-T is not free to pursue the normal avenues available to the sheep in providing material gain.
80. This is why the #1 priority of the local church is to provide support for the P-T. 2Tim.2:6
81. Peter’s concern presupposes that elders were paid for their labors.
82. Apostolic teaching promoted the financial support of those that taught the WOG. 1Cor.9:11-14
83. It is not wrong for a P-T to labor in hope of financial advancement, as long as he does not make that the criterion for continued service.
84. Otherwise, in times of deficiency, the P-T is to remain focused on his eternal vindication for sacrifice.
85. Again, hirelings are often ruled by the monetary factor.
86. Other avenues of “illicit gain” might include establishing friendships with those not +V (4 walls test), hedonism (off-set boredom), pursuit of details, etc.
87. Those pastors that are avid students of the text demonstrating their love by the quality of their work will prove themselves honorable regardless of their income or unglamorous niche. Cp.1Tim.4:15
88. The final contrasting set entails two focuses: Grace orientation and applying what one teaches.
89. The 1st two adverbial sets of contrasts emphasized mitigating circumstances associated with the ministry.
90. They are designed to addresses the pressures of the shepherd as a “provider” not allowing the STA to distract them from their job.
91. Peter now returns to the use of imperatival participles to emphasize personal interaction with the sheep.
92. The participles are designed to parallel the Pastor in his authority as “overseer/protector” of the flock (imper. ptc. “exercising oversight”).
93. The participle “lording it over/katakurieu,w – katakurieuo” is used 4x and has to do with abuse of authority, not exercise of authority.
94. The verb is used 2x of Gentile rulers ruling with oppression and recalls Jesus’ warning to His disciples not to follow suit. Mat.20:25; Mar.10:42
95. It is used 1x of the demoniac “subduing” the Jewish exorcists in Act.19:16.
96. The office of elder carries with it rank and authority.
97. The P-T is not to use the pulpit as a “bully” pulpit seeking to coerce believers into application or using them as a target for his own frustrations in life.
98. Spiritual bullies are those that tend not to care about others, lacking compassion and humility.
99. At all times, the P-T must maintain the balance and perspective of grace when dealing with the saints.
100. This comes by allowing the text and doctrine to determine the appropriate measures and timing on how to deal with specifics as well as corporate issues.
101. In contrast, the P-T is to set example in grace by adhering and applying the very doctrine that he expects from others.
102. An authority not willing to abide by his own expectations is hypocritical and generally abusive.
103. The inserted phrase “those allotted to your charge” is designed to remind the elders of the primary owner of their sheep.
104. The phrase is one word in the Greek with the d.a., “o` klh/roj – ho kleros”.
105. The noun strictly means a small object such as a pebble or twig that is thrown to determine a choice or assign a portion/lot (cf.Mar.15:24).
106. It further came to mean a “share”, however assigned, but especially “by grace” (Act.1:17; 8:21; Col.1:12).
107. The “share” in view is to be understood in light of the implied parallelism with “the flock” at the end of the verse.
108. If the “flock of God” is the Church Universal, then the “shares” are portions of the flock under the care of designated Pastors.
109. Each Pastor in a given locale has his “allotment” that is determined by the H.S. that operates under the Chief Shepherd. Act.20:28
110. The H.S. brings the two parties together as the sheep identify with the shepherd’s voice. Joh.10:3,5
111. The pairing of right Pastor with right congregation is an act of grace from God.
112. Hence the importance of the elders to always exemplify that grace in the exercise of their authority over their sheep.
THE P-T’S ETERNAL PRIZE
EXEGESIS VERSE 4:
GNT 1 Peter 5:4 kai. fanerwqe,ntoj tou/ avrcipoi,menoj komiei/sqe to.n avmara,ntinon th/j do,xhj ste,fanonÅ
NAS 1 Peter 5:4 (Revised) And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading wreath of glory. kai, (cs) fanerwqe,ntoj fanero,w (gen. absol. ptc./a/p/gm-s; "when appearing/after being revealed"; same as 1:20) tou/ o` avrcipoi,menoj avrcipoi,mhn (d.a. + n-gm-s; "the Chief Shepherd"; hapax) komiei/sqe komi,zw (vifm--2p; "you yourselves will receive/obtain"; same as 1:9) to.n o` avmara,ntinon avmara,ntinoj (d.a. + a--am-s; "the unfading"; used with reference to flowers; hapax) ste,fanonÅ ste,fanoj (n-am-s; "wreath") th/j h` do,xhj do,xa (d.a. + n-gf-s; "of glory")
ANALYSIS VERSE 4:
1. Peter now reveals why Pastors should be so motivated to perform their offices correctly.
2. This because of the eternal vindication that awaits them, “And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading wreath of glory”.
3. The genitive absolute phrase “when the Chief Shepherd appears/fanvero,w o` avrcipoi,menoj – phaneroo ho archipoimenos” is reference to Christ Himself.
4. The genitive absolute points to Christ in His uniqueness as a Shepherd of the sheep, a title already bestowed by Peter in 1Pet.2:25.
5. It sets His position apart from the under-shepherds to whom Peter is exhorting (the gen. absol. recognizes the difference between sub-shepherds and The Shepherd).
6. Christ is not only the Chief Shepherd, He is the sovereign King and ruler over all (cf.3:22).
7. Peter’s unique designation appeals to the LXX
of 2Kgs.3:4 whereas the king of
8. Metaphorically, Peter’s title implies Jesus’ sovereignty and role in the spiritual birth that designates those that are His sheep.
9. With this title, Peter seems to acknowledge the charge he himself is said to have received from Jesus according to Joh.21:15-17: “Feed My lambs…Feed My sheep”.
10. Again, other designations along this line include “the Great Shepherd” (Heb.13:20) and “the Good Shepherd” (Joh.10:11,14).
11. His appearing is of course reference to the Rapture of the Church.
12. The Rapture concludes the Church Age.
13. The Rapture is associated with an awards (rewards) ceremony called the Judgment/Bema Seat of Christ. Cf.1Cor.3:12-15; 2Cor.5:10
14. The Judgment Seat of Christ occurs immediately after the Rapture and before our journey into the third heaven.
15. Christ’s glory is revealed to the church universal when He appears in the earth’s upper atmosphere. Cf.1The.4:13-18; cp.Joh.14:3
16. All believers by association with Him are guaranteed a resurrection body just like Christ’s. Cf.1Cor.15:35-57; 1Joh.3:2
17. The aorist passive verb “appears” means to make manifest that which has been previously concealed.
18. The same form of the verb was used in 1:20 of Christ’s “appearing” on earth for redemption (as a “lamb unblemished and spotless”, 1:19) and is now used here to His future appearing in glory (as “Chief Shepherd”).
19. The verb “you will receive/komi,zw – komizo” means “receive payment”, or “collect a reward”.
20. Peter’s use of the word both here and in 1Pet.1:9 (“obtaining”) indicates SG3 remuneration for faith plus works (application).
21. Shepherds that execute under their godliness code will receive a payment, or reward, for their faithful diligence from the Chief Shepherd Himself at His appearing.
22. The “wreath/ste,fanoj – stephanos” is a victor’s wreath and here does not have to do with the authority to rule, but with a conferred honor for achievement.
23. The genitive “of glory” is appositional, as in: The “wreath” is glory, the same kind of glory to which Peter referred in 1Pet.1:7 and 5:1.
24. This “wreath of glory” is available to all believers that complete their Ph2 on earth according to the rules laid down in Scripture. Cf.2Tim.2:5; 4:8
25. The “wreath” represents the highest and most distinguished category of Ph3 glory, or SG3.
26. It is a.k.a. “the wreath of righteousness” (2Tim.4:8); “the wreath of life” (Jam.1:12; Rev.2:10); “the wreath of boasting” (1The.2:19); or “the prize” (1Cor.9:24; Phi.3:14; Col.2:18; 2Tim.2:5); or simply “the wreath” (1Cor.9:25; Phi.4:1; Rev.3:11).
27. That “the wreath” and “the prize” are one and the same, see 1Cor.9:24,25 and 2Tim.2:5.
28. The background to these references to the “wreath” was the athletic games held in Roman times.
29. Winning an event qualified the victor for a wreath and associated perks.
30. Peter highlights the character of the crown, or wreath, by describing it as that which is “unfading/avmara,ntinoj – amarantinos” often spoken of in terms of flowers.
31. Peter may have in mind actual flowers from which some wreaths were made.
32. The adjective is formed from the name of an actual flower, the amaranth. Philostratus, Heroicus 19.14
33. The meaning is the same as in 1Pet.1:4: the believer’s Ph3 inheritance is the everlasting glory and honor that falls upon those that faithfully adhere to BD in Ph2.
34. While all believers will enjoy Ph3 glory, there will be distinctions based on compliance or non-compliance with the imperatives of BD. Cf.1Cor.3:12-15; 15:40
35. Pastor-Teachers that receive “the wreath of glory” will be an elite fraternity.
36. The glory of SG3, unlike temporal acquisitions, will never be diminished due to time and circumstances.
37. Peter reinforces the argument of Paul in 1Cor.9:25 that athletes compete for “a corruptible wreath”, but “we for an incorruptible”.
38. Review the Doctrines of Pastor-Teacher and Surpassing Grace/SG3.
CALL TO SUBMISSION AND HUMILITY
EXEGESIS VERSE 5:
GNT 1 Peter 5:5 ~Omoi,wj( new,teroi( u`pota,ghte presbute,roij\ pa,ntej de. avllh,loij th.n tapeinofrosu,nhn evgkombw,sasqe( o[ti ~O qeo.j u`perhfa,noij avntita,ssetai( tapeinoi/j de. di,dwsin ca,rinÅ
NAS 1 Peter 5:5 You younger men, likewise, be subject to your elders; new,teroi( ne,oj (compar. adj.pro./Vm-p; of quality or time: new/recent; of age "younger men"; used 23x) ~Omoi,wj( (adv.; "likewise/similarly") u`pota,ghte u`pota,ssw (vImpap--2p; "be subject/be subordinate"; same as 2:13,18; 3:1,5,22) presbute,roij\ presbu,teroj (ap/compara./dm-p; "to the elders"; same as 5:1) and all of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another, de, (cc) pa,ntej pa/j (ap-Vm-p; "all of you") evgkombw,sasqe( evgkombo,omai (vImpad--2p; "clothe yourselves"; hapax) th.n h` tapeinofrosu,nhn tapeinofrosu,nh (d.a. + n-af-s; "with humility"; opposite of u`perhfani,a - huperephania: arrogance,pride; used 7x) avllh,loij avllh,lwn (recipr.pro./dm2p; "to one another"; how they are to relate to one another; same as 1:22; 4:9) for God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble. o[ti (causal) ~O qeo,j (d.a. + n-nm-s) avntita,ssetai( avntita,ssw (vipm--3s; "keeps on Himself being opposed/resists"; used 5x) u`perhfa,noij u`perh,fanoj (ap-dm-p; "to the proud/arrogant/haughty"; used 5x) de, (ch) di,dwsin di,dwmi (vipa--3s; "keeps on giving") ca,rinÅ ca,rij (n-af-s; "grace") tapeinoi/j tapeino,j (ap-dm-p; "to the humble/gentle" used 8x)
ANALYSIS VERSE 5:
1. Following the Pastor’s responsibility to shepherd God’s sheep (vss.1-4), Peter now turns his attention back to the sheep.
2. He first addresses the adult males in vs.5a and then absorbs the remaining recipients in 5b.
3. Following on the heels of exhorting the elders to not let their STA’s rule in abuse of their ministry/authority, the concern now becomes the laymen’s obligation in return.
4. This is the force of the opening adverb in the Greek text “likewise/ `Omio,wj – homioos” that has the nuance of “in turn” or “for your part”.
5. Peter’s initial target for concern is aimed at “you younger men”, whom he exhorts to “be subject to your elders”.
6. The contrasting comparative adjectives of “younger men/ne,oj – neos” and “elders/ presbu,teroj – presbuteros” are designed to parallel what is observed in society.
7. In the ancient world the division of society into older and younger people was taken for granted, as the division between men and women, free and slaves, etc.
8. The shift from “elders” to “younger” is natural as the spiritual leadership is generally taken from those with time (age) and grade (experience).
9. The designation of “younger” here does not demand chronological youthfulness though that is generally the norm.
10. Rather it is to be contrasted to those that hold authority of office as elders (the same designation given to Pastors in vs.1).
11. Timothy, as a Pastor, was younger, but yet he was an elder. Cf.1Tim.4:12
12. The idea of “younger men” is those that have less than seniority of “elders” (cp. use of “younger” in Luk.22:26).
13. This technical interpretative use compliments Peter’s technical use of the term “elders” (5:1,5).
14. Further it conforms to the exclusive use of the verb to “be subject in submission to authority (u`pota,ssw)” as with all its other uses (2:13,18; 3:1,5,22) in the epistle.
15. “Younger men” is a catch all phrase for the male students of the WOG subordinate to their “teacher” irrespective of age. Cp.Mat.10:24,25
16. These are obligated to respect their church leaders just as youths are obligated to respect adults in a normal society.
17. Typically, it is the more immature (youthful) types of believers that personify an independent mentality, though any believer can react rebelliously.
18. It is generally other males that have the propensity to challenge or undermine the authority of Pastors in local churches that places proper emphasis on the male’s role. Cp.1Tim.2:12
19. Peter’s admonition is that these men are not to take advantage of the Pastor’s grace code as a test of his patience or tolerance.
20. These are not to provide the Pastor with additional ammunition to react to his ministry in a negative manner as outlined in vss.2-3.
21. Rather, they are to show the proper respect of double honor afforded the office. 1Tim.5:17
22. There is no evidence that Peter knows of any cases of rebellion with these churches and his admonition is simply designed to provide further support for the elders.
23. It should go without saying after all that Peter has taught as to the priority God places upon acclimation to authority.
24. The proper MA between the shepherd and sheep is that both are obligated to apply BD for the purpose of well-being for all concerned.
25. Peter then expands that thought in application to the church corporately, “and all of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another”.
26. “All of you” gathers into a single command the preceding advice of responsibility of “likewise” while addressing all classifications of believers in these churches.
27. The accompanying “toward one another” picks up the note of mutuality sounded in 1Pet.4:8-10, where the proper posture of believers is love (v.8), hospitality (v.9), and service (v.10).
28. Here the call is to “humility/h` tapeinofrosu,nan - tapeinophrosunan” (cf. “humble of spirit” in 1Pet.3:8).
29. Believers are to “clothe” themselves with this fruit of the spirit, as with a garment.
30. The particular verb (evgkombo,omai – egkomboomai) means, literally, “to fasten on”.
31. It is possible, though not certain, that Peter is alluding to the action of Jesus in girding Himself with a towel to wash the disciples’ feet in Jn.13:4.
32. The lesson was designed to demonstrate two things.
33. The absolute necessity of Rebound and the importance of humility towards one another.
34. If their superior was willing to humble Himself and wash their feet, so should we serve one another regardless of rank.
35. To humble oneself is to do what is Biblically specified in any given situation.
36. Peter again appeals to the O.T. for support and to clarify what true humility is following the LXX of Pro.3:34, “for God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble”.
37. The same quotation occurs in Jam.4:6b.
38. Since pride is the opposite of humility, the antithetical parallelism of the proverb is designed to distance us from pride, since “God is opposed to the proud”.
39. Whenever and wherever you see pride and arrogance, you are witnessing someone God is against.
40. Pride is the original sin committed at the time of Satan’s fall from perfection. Cf.Eze.28:15,17
41. Pride unarrested always precedes a fall. Pro.16:18; 29:23
42. The present tense of the verbs “opposed/avntita,ssw - antitasso” and “gives/di,dwmi - didomi” refers to that which awaits the respective groups - “the proud” and “the humble”.
43. The “grace/ca,rij - charis” given to “the humble” includes all that God does to sustain us as we endure adversity.
44. This as well as the final vindication when Ph3 grace is brought to us at the Bema Seat (cf. 1Pet.1:13).
45. “The proud” have God as their enemy, and He deals with all of them in judgment and humiliation.
46. “The humble” are characterized by obedience to the revealed will of God.
47. They enjoy Ph2, but especially Ph3, vindication.
48. The “grace” God gives to the humble is the same as James’ “greater grace”, where this O.T. citation also occurs in Jam.4:6.
49. The context in James deals with adhering to God the HS no matter the cost, knowing that God will supply “greater grace” to those that do not rely on the cosmos or its ways, but trust in God to deliver and vindicate those that follow the lead of the HS.
50. Following the promise to give “greater grace”, there follows in vss.7-10 a series of commands indicating the need for a decisive and urgent break with worldliness (see vss.1-4).
51. Here that call is to act in a humble manner toward other members of the Royal Family by doing (and thinking and saying) the things that are in their spiritual interests.
52. When we humble ourselves, we can be assured that God will give us the Ph2 grace to overcome the hardships associated with our applications.
53. God’s Ph2 grace is sufficient for any circumstance.
EXEGESIS VERSES 6 – 7:
TRUE HUMILITY RESULTS IN EXALTATION
GNT 1 Peter 5:6 Tapeinw,qhte ou=n u`po. th.n krataia.n cei/ra tou/ qeou/( i[na u`ma/j u`yw,sh| evn kairw/|(
NAS 1 Peter 5:6 Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, Tapeinw,qhte tapeino,w (vImpap--2p; "Be humble/Humble yourselves"; cognate of the adj. "humble" vs.5; used 14x) ou=n (infer. conj.; "therefore") u`po, (pa; "under") th.n h` krataia.n krataio,j (d.a. + a--af-s; "the mighty/powerful"; used 1x) cei/ra cei,r (n-af-s; "hand") tou/ o` qeou/( qeo,j (d.a. + n-gm-s) that He may exalt you at the proper time, i[na (cs; "resulting that") u`yw,sh| u`yo,w (vsaa--3s; lit. lift up/raise high; "exalt") u`ma/j su, (npa-2p) evn (pL of time; "at") kairw/|( kairo,j (n-dm-s; "the due or proper time")
THE M.O. FOR SUSTAINING HUMILITY
GNT 1 Peter 5:7 pa/san th.n me,rimnan u`mw/n evpiri,yantej evpV auvto,n( o[ti auvtw/| me,lei peri. u`mw/nÅ
NAS 1 Peter 5:7 casting all your anxiety upon Him, because He cares for you. evpiri,yantej evpiri,ptw (imper. ptc./a/a/nm2p; lit. "throw on" cp. Luk.19:35; "casting"; used 2x) pa/san pa/j (a--af-s; "all") u`mw/n su, (npg-2p ref. believers) th.n h` me,rimnan me,rimna (d.a. + n-af-s; "care/anxiety/worry"; used 6x) evpV evpi, (pa; "upon") auvto,n( auvto,j (npam3s; ref. God) o[ti (causal conj.) auvtw/| auvto,j (npdm3s; emphatic; "He Himself") me,lei (vipa--3s; "keeps on being concerned/caring for/having interest or deference for"; used 10x) peri, (pg; "concerning") u`mw/nÅ su, (npg-2p; ref. believers)
ANALYSIS VERSES 6 – 7:
1. The inferential conjunction “therefore/ou-n – oun” assumes a logical deduction to be made from the contrasting postures of God toward the proud vs. the humble in vs.5 (LXX Pro.3:34).
2. What believer in their right mind wants to be God’s enemy?
3. Yet believers (both Pastors and sheep) unwilling to function towards one another in true humility per vss.2-5 operate under the very pride designating them as such. Cf.Phi.3:17-19
4. Pride (arrogance) is the underwriter to all sin asserting the STA over submission to God.
5. Pride always has a counterpart in its expression (e.g. Satan’s beauty; Eze.28:17).
6. Contextually, pride is seen in asserting one’s own will/standard(s) over God’s.
7. Peter pays no mind to those that might reject the doctrine and simply concludes what +V would naturally expect in way of exhortation to, “Humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God”.
8. The imperatival verb “Be humble/tapeino,w – tapeinoo” is the cognate to the adjective “humble (tapeinos)” ending vs.5 indicating the necessity of application to possess this Christian quality.
9. The middle translation of the verb “humble yourselves” is in light of its passive voice that demands an outside force to make humility a reality.
10. Of the 8x this verb is used for self-humility, 6x the author uses the active voice plus a reflexive pronoun to emphasize the willingness to apply. Cf.Mat.18:4; 23:12b; Luk.14:11b; 18:14c; 2Cor.11:7; Phi.2:8
11. Only in our verse and Jam.4:10 is the passive voice used in this vein.
12. Both Peter and James want to emphasize the submissive nature of humility (cf.Jam.4:7a) that implements the true power/agent that results in being humble.
13. That is that true humility is the result of FHS/BD (cf.Jam.4:8).
14. The “humble” are those acclimated to God’s plan of grace overruling STA pride.
15. Contextually they are defined as those believers willing to persevere in the face of those otherwise antagonistic to grace (the “proud”).
16. The adjusted believer does not allow himself to compromise BD to alleviate the situation.
17. These accept their allotment of suffering and turn it into a positive, beneficial experience under grace.
18. Rather than to succumb to the pressures of human STA pride, they submit themselves “under the mighty hand of God”.
19. The humble are the same +V believers that “entrust their souls to a faithful Creator in doing what is right” (cf.4:19).
20. Whereas 4:19 implied God’s omnipotence, Peter now explicitly declares it.
21. The phrase “mighty hand/h` krataio,j cei,r – he krataios cheir” is an anthropomorphism to illustrate the power of God’s deliverance.
22. The phrase is used in the
O.T. repetitively for God’s deliverance of
23. The preposition “under/u`po, - hupo” emphasizes that the humble ultimately relies on the power and protection of God to deliver them in the A/C.
24. It is the FHS with BD that shows the believer the path to take to ensure God’s grace for deliverance.
25. Peter then couples a promise of Divine exaltation with his explicit command, “that He may exalt you at the proper time”.
26. The theme of humility and exaltation is also conspicuous in the O.T. (e.g.; 1Sam.2:7,8; Isa.2:11; Eze.17:24; Job 5:11) as well as the Gospel tradition (Mat.23:12; Luk.1:52; 14:11; 18:14) and elsewhere (2Cor.11:7; Jam.4:10).
27. The subjunctive mood of potential “may exalt/u`yo,w – hupsoo” plays on the passive voice of “Be humble” to indicate that apart from submission to God (via FHS/BD), there is no potential for ultimate exaltation.
28. In contrast to the self-absorbed “proud”, the adjusted believer lets God provide the approbation, boast, etc., associated with self-praise.
29. To be humble under the Omnipotent hand of God is to remain faithful under ongoing adverse circumstances not taking matters into our own hands.
30. It means to stay the course in one’s niche and duties under the perfect will of God.
31. The prepositional phrase “at the proper time/evn kairo,j – en kairos” simply means “at the right time” (cp.same form: Mat.13:30; 24:45; Luk.12:42; 1Pet.1:5).
32. The promise is that “when the time is right, God will give you help”. Cp.Jam.4:10
33. God has promised to deliver the righteous out of all his afflictions. Psa.34:19
34. As for persecution, it lasts only as long as we are in Ph2 and so ultimate exaltation awaits the coming of Christ as in 1:5b.
35. We should not exclude the principle that God provides temporal as well as ultimate vindication for those that are faithful.
36. The sentence continues in vs.7 where Peter then describes the modus operandi of humility, “casting all your anxiety upon Him, because He cares for you”.
37. The participle “casting/evpiri,ptw – epiripto” is here more circumstantial than imperatival and is designed to be contemporaneous with the main verb “be humble”.
38. It is designed to define a specific operating procedure employed by the humble.
39. The verb “casting” figuratively means to stop worrying and trust completely.
40. The phrase “all your anxiety/pa/j su, h` me,rimna – pas su he merimna” means just that. Cp. Psa.94:19
41. It indicates concern and is used in both a bad (sinful worry) and good (righteous) way. Luk.21:34 cp.2Cor.11:28
42. Anything that is a source of concern or worry is to be transferred to the Lord via prayer and faith-rest. Cf.Phi.4:6; Psa.139:23; Isa.35:4
43. This demands that the believer overrule sin fear in all matters.
44. Only in this manner can we enter into His rest that is a soulish state akin to the literal Sabbath. Cf.Heb.4:1-10
45. It is characterized by avoiding energy of the flesh and letting God handle the situation.
46. Those that claim promises like Heb.13:5 enter into His rest.
47. It is Ph2 faith that drives the believer’s confidence i.e., God truly “cares for you”.
48. The present tense of the verb “cares/me,lei – melei” is used 10x in the N.T. and has the nuance of impartiality when used with the negative (e.g., Mat.22:16 Mar.12:14).
49. God’s impartiality indicates that any deference/respect/interest (to be partial) He has for others otherwise is based on the truth of His Word.
50. Ironically, it is used by Paul of God’s care for oxen to His real concern for His communicators (1Cor.9:9) being apropos as Peter has in mind both Pastors and sheep.
51. God’s care is an extension of His love that is provided for all men (Joh.3:16) but actively pursues the humble that reciprocate in love (Rom.8:28).
52. There is special attention given to the adjusted believer that humbles himself/herself under faith-rest (application of Divine love).
53. The believer that trusts in God and His promises is not afraid when threatening circumstances rise up before him. Cf.Jer.17:7-8
54. Peter’s interest is in God’s special protecting care for those that trust in His promises in the face of suffering.
55. When you fail to faith-rest, you fail to enjoy the grace that God gives the humble.
56. Review the Doctrine of Pride.
GNT 1 Peter 5:8 Nh,yate( grhgorh,sateÅ o` avnti,dikoj u`mw/n dia,boloj w`j le,wn wvruo,menoj peripatei/ zhtw/n tina katapiei/n\
NAS 1 Peter 5:8 Be of sober spirit, be on the alert. Nh,yate( nh,fw (vImpaa--2p; " Be sober [of sober spirit]; same as 1:13; 4:7) grhgorh,sateÅ grhgore,w (vImpaa--2p; "watch/keep awake/be alert"; used 22x; fig. used as the opposite of spiritually unprepared/maladjusted cf.1The.5:6,10; Rev.3:2,3; 16:15) Your adversary, the devil, prowls about like a roaring lion, u`mw/n su, (npg-2p; ref. believers) o` avnti,dikoj (d.a. + n-nm-s; legally a plaintiff/opponent at law cf.Mat.5:25; 12:58; Luk:18:3; "adversary/accuser"; used 4x) dia,boloj (ap-nm-s; "slanderer/malicious gossip/devil") peripatei/ peripate,w (vipa--3s; "keeps on walking around/prowling about") w`j (compar. conj.; "like") wvruo,menoj wvru,omai (adj. ptc./p/d/nm-s; lit. the loud cry of animals, hence "roaring"; used 1x) le,wn (n-nm-s "lion") seeking someone to devour. zhtw/n zhte,w (adj. ptc./p/a/nm-s; "seeking/looking for") tina ti.j (indef. pro./am-s; "someone") katapiei/n\ katapi,nw (inf. purp./aa; lit. drink, gulp down, swallow; "to devour"; used 7x)
ENGAGING THE ENEMY
GNT 1 Peter 5:9 w-| avnti,sthte stereoi. th/| pi,stei eivdo,tej ta. auvta. tw/n paqhma,twn th/| evn tw/| ko,smw| u`mw/n avdelfo,thti evpitelei/sqaiÅ
NAS 1 Peter 5:9 (Revised) Concerning him, resist, firm in your faith, w-| o[j(rel. pro./dm-s; dative of ref.; "Concerning whom or him [ref. the devil]") avnti,sthte avnqi,sthmi (vImpaa--2p; "resist/oppose/stand firm against"; used 14x) stereoi. stereo,j (a--nm-p; "firm/solid/steadfast"; used 4x) th/| h` pi,stei pi,stij (d.a. + n-Lf-s; "in faith"; "your" supplied) knowing that the same experiences of suffering eivdo,tej oi=da (circ. ptc./PF/a/nm2p; "while knowing"; PF indicates absolute certainty) ta. to, (d.a./anp +) auvta. auvto,j (pers. pro./-an-p; "the same things/experiences") tw/n to, paqhma,twn pa,qhma (d.a. + n-gn-p; "of sufferings"; same as 1:11; 4:13; 5:1) are being accomplished by your brotherhood who are in the world. evpitelei/sqaiÅ evpitele,w (Inf/pp; functions as d.o. of the ptc. "knowing" further explaining "the same experiences [epexegetically]"; "are being accomplished/completed/finished/performed") th/| h` avdelfo,thti avdelfo,thj (d.a. n-If-s; "by the brotherhood"; same as 2:17) u`mw/n su, (npg-2p; "your") evn (pL) tw/| o` ko,smw| ko,smoj (d.a. + n-Lm-s)
ANALYSIS VERSES 8 – 9:
1. Having emphasized the passive nature of humility between fellow believers inviting maximum grace (vss.5-7), Peter now shifts gears to a proactive approach.
2. This sharp contrast adds strength to the force of the 3 aorist imperatives, “Be sober, alert and resist”.
3. The aorist tenses are a snapshot of expectation throughout the believer’s life.
4. The purpose of contrast is to succinctly present two levels of which the believer must operate for a successful Ph2 in light of the A/C:
A. Humility under passive submission to the POG looking to His ultimate power to deliver (faith-rest).
B. Actively (aggressively) pursing BD in application as a defense for ourselves awaiting God’s help (cp.vs.10).
5. Living the Christian life is neither only passive nor only active; it is a harmony of the two together.
6. This addresses any extreme views believers may have that the Christian life is to be all passive (e.g., hearers, not doers; cp.Jam.1:22) or all active (e.g., zeal without knowledge; cp.Rom.10:2; energy of the flesh types).
7. The assertive side of BD is found in maintaining spiritual awareness (vs.8) and standing firm against the enemy’s opposition to BD (vs.9).
8. Further, vs.8 places emphasis on the inner conflict and vs.9 on the external.
9. Whereas Peter implicitly addressed the A/C and its impact in 4:12-19, he now makes clear of its existence in vs.8, “Be of sober spirit, be on the alert. Your adversary the devil, prowls about like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour”.
10. The 1st two imperatives indicate a constant state of readiness believers are to maintain as they engage in spiritual warfare.
11. The verb “be of sober spirit/nh,fw – nepho” has already been presented by Peter 2x as critical to being an adjusted believer in 1:13 and 4:7.
12. In indicates spiritual sobriety or sound judgment that is a result of isolation of the STA (FHS) and the intake of BD.
13. Both involve conscious effort and self-discipline.
14. When we are under the influence of the STA and human viewpoint we are “drunk”.
15. We are not to allow the cosmic antithesis to BD dull our spiritual senses.
16. This demands constant training under the rigors of MPR designed to keep before us at all times the mind of Christ to keep in check any STA/cosmic influence otherwise.
17. Staying in fellowship and in Bible class is essential and has a direct affect on our prayer life (4:7).
18. Failure to stay in shape under MPR produces believers that are easy targets for the schemes of the enemy.
19. Spiritual sobriety describes believers that come to the light avoiding the darkness of the world (Cf.1The.5:7,8 cp.Joh.3:20).
20. The 2nd imperative “be on the alert/grhgore,w – gregoreo” builds on spiritual sobriety.
21. This verb emphasizes the necessity to maintain our zeal for MPR/FHS and not to loose the discipline and otherwise being in less than peak performance spiritually.
22. The command is used as a “wake up” call for those that otherwise are “asleep at the wheel” (Rev.3:2,3; 16:15).
23. It means at no time are we to let our spiritual guards down unless we become victims to the distractions of our STA and fall into the hands of our enemy.
24. The alert believer is set in contrast to the maladjusted and otherwise unprepared believer. Cp.1The.5:6,10
25. The maladjusted believer is one that is apathetic, lethargic or void in dealing with the STA, maintaining their MPR and applying the royal imperatives otherwise as necessary.
26. The idea of “watchfulness” is used with respect to living in the last days (Mat.24:42,43; 25:13; 1The.5:6,10) and facing a personal hour of crises when subject to extreme temptation (Mat.26:38,40,41).
27. All of us today need to heed this imperative considering that we are living in the waning moments of the dispensation.
28. Vigilance is a manly (assertive) characteristic. Cp.1Cor.16:13
29. It too is associated with prayer. Col.4:2
30. Distractions abound that can take our focus off of the goal of appearing before Christ irreprehensible, having made the sacrifices so as to finish our course.
31. Now is the time to pull out all the stops, regardless of sacrifice, to attain to Ph2 sanctification.
32. Believers must heed these imperatives as they face the “fiery ordeal” (4:12) in order not to be swallowed up by the forces (human and angelic) that are against them.
33. Peter then gives reason why the need of sound thinking and being on red alert as stated in terms of how dangerous our enemy is.
34. For the 1st time in the epistle, opposition to believers is personified in a single “adversary” clearly identified as “the devil”.
35. All other references to opposition have been in the plural:
A. The “disobedient”. 2:7,8; 4:17
B. The “Gentiles”. 2:12
C. “Foolish men”. 2:15
D. The “unreasonable masters”. 2:18
E. The “unbelieving husbands”. 3:1
F. “Those that revile your good behavior”. 3:16
G. The “blasphemers”. 4:4b
H. The indefinite “they”. 3:14; 4:14
36. Peter now brings into focus the core of the A/C as a universal conflict between the devil and God and His people.
37. The A/C revolves around the two opposing forces of –V vs. +V.
38. The noun “adversary/avnti,dikoj – antidikos” is used of a plaintiff (opponent) in a lawsuit. Mat.5:25 (2x); Luk.12:58; 18:3
39. Peter chooses this term contextually because of the charges being leveled against these early Christians (cp.2:12,15).
40. Hence, the following term “devil/dia,boloj – diabolos” that means “accuser”.
41. Satan is forever slandering believers, either directly (cp.Job 1:11 Rev.12:10) or via his agents (as with these believers).
42. This term “devil” refers consistently in the N.T. to Satan as the archenemy of God and the fountain of evil in the world.
43. The whole world is his territory. Cf.Job.1:7; cf.1Pet.5:9b
44. He operates through his demonic hordes (unclean spirits) and willing human agents.
45. Even believers can be his agents. 1Tim.5:15; 2Tim.2:26
46. The idea of the phrase “prowls about like a roaring lion” parallels the thought of Job.1:7 (prowls/peripate,w – peripateo/walking around).
47. The lion analogy indicates that Satan is a dangerous creature that is always looking for prey.
48. It denotes his counterfeit role of ruling the world in place of Christ. Cp.Rev.5:5 cf.Isa.14:13
49. The adjectival participle “roaring/wvru,omai - oruomai” suggests the intimidation factor intended to induce believers to capitulate rather than suffer.
50. The “roaring” is the threats hurled against believers by their opponents.
51. Those who capitulate are “devoured/katapi,nw - katapino” that literally means to be “swallowed up”.
52. The potential “devouring” here is not martyrdom (a positive event), but a denial of the faith under the STA in order to alleviate or thwart suffering from the source of Satan’s agents.
53. To capitulate to Satanic attack can come from one of two sources; cowardice or retaliation.
54. The visual Peter is painting is the Satanic attack against humanity seeking to engulf them into his system of STA/human viewpoint evil.
55. How he does so is by using all the instruments at his disposal that appeals to the lust grid of the STA including fear, anger, bitterness, hate, etc.
56. With the 3rd imperative (vs.9), Peter admonishes believers to “resist him/o[j avnqi,sthmi – hos anthisthemi” now emphasizing external temptations, “Concerning him, resist, firm in your faith”.
57. This verb is a military term and means to “stand firm against” or “oppose”.
58. This imperative is only as affective as the commitment to heed the 1st 2 imperatives.
59. The resistance he calls upon Christians to engage in is refusal to deny the faith in the face of threats and accusations and temptations.
60. This often demands a verbal stand for the truth as an act of defense.
61. The satanic attack is formidable, but the weapons of our warfare will prove superior. Cf.Eph.6:13 “in the evil day” = satanic offensive
62. Satan will abandon the attack if we stand up to him. Cf.Jam.4:7
63. The phrase “firm in the faith” (your – supplied) interprets “resist”.
64. To resist Satan is not to engage in hostile action against anyone, but to trust in God. Cf.4:19; 5:6; Jam.4:7
65. While “humility” (vss.5-7) is passive and our imperatives are active, both demand the employment of the faith-rest technique.
66. Faith-rest is that which harmonizes both the passive and active sides of spirituality.
67. The imperatival force of “resist” is fed by the adjective “firm/stereoj – stereos”.
68. The idea of “firm/solid/steadfast” is as in a “rock-like” resolution.
69. The noun “faith/pi,stij – pistis” is with the definite article and can be used of either personal faith (active: Acts.3:16; 15:9; Rom.4:19,20; 5:2; 11:20; Phil.3:9; 2Tim.3:10; Heb.4:2; 2Pet.1:5) or in reference to BD (passive: Acts.6:7; 14:22; 16:5; 1Cor.16:13; 2Cor.13:5; Phil.1:27; Col.1:23; 2:7; Ti.1:13; 2:2).
70. The question here is, which usage best suits the context?
71. As all other uses of “faith” in 1st Peter refer to active (1:5,7,9,21), it is best assumed the same here, though passive might be implied.
72. The overall idea is to remain steadfast with +V to BD.
73. Believers are not to waver in their faith, but to possess a rock-like faith in the presence of the roar of the satanic lion.
74. We are not to give an inch to anyone who is trying to induce us to abandon our hope.
75. When we use the spiritual weapons of our warfare, the satanic attack will be turned back, as was Jesus’ experience in the great temptation. Cf.Mat.4:1-11
76. He used Scripture to overcome Satan’s strategies.
77. When we stand our ground, Satan will give up the fight.
78. Courage will win the day against all his assaults.
79. The believer is to stand firm in his/her own faith, trusting in God for victory.
80. There is a very important piece of information that will help bolster us in the day of temptation, which Peter then sets before them in the final phrase of vs.9, “knowing that the same experiences of suffering are being accomplished by your brotherhood who are in the world”.
81. The perfect participle “knowing/oi-da - oida”, followed by the accusative “the same experiences/to, auvto,j – to autos” and an infinitive functioning epexegetically “are being accomplished/evpitele,w - epiteleo”, cohesively illustrate one main idea.
82. It is a matter of knowing that something is true that arms the believer with moral support in the face of temptation.
83. In effect, Peter is saying “know this” as he introduces this important piece of information.
84. The important information - very important in any presentation of the doctrine of suffering - is that believers facing slander and persecution in the Asian provinces are not alone.
85. Peter clearly affirms the solidarity of his own community of faith (cf. vs.13), and that of the Christian brotherhood worldwide, with the distant congregations to which he writes.
86. The phrase “the same experiences of suffering” refers to the fact that what the recipients were currently undergoing was mirrored by the universal “brotherhood” scattered throughout “the world”.
87. The term “brethren” (NAS) is literally “brotherhood/avdelfo,thj – adelphotes”, used only here and in 1Pet.2:17.
88. The infinitive “being accomplished” means to complete, accomplish, finish, perform and suggests a fixed amount of suffering (cf.Col.1:24).
89. This verb is chosen to accentuate the fact that the sufferings of the body of Christ are not a matter of chance but a necessary part of God’s purposes.
90. The fact that others are suffering and have suffered the same kind of things we are undergoing is a great boost to our morale in our corner of the kingdom.
91. Much is at stake, and we do not want to fall short when we all compare notes in Ph3!
A FINAL PROMISE FOR PH2 GRACE
EXEGESIS VERSE 10:
GNT 1 Peter 5:10 ~O de. qeo.j pa,shj ca,ritoj( o` kale,saj u`ma/j eivj th.n aivw,nion auvtou/ do,xan evn Cristw/|( ovli,gon paqo,ntaj auvto.j katarti,sei( sthri,xei( sqenw,sei( qemeliw,seiÅ
NAS 1 Peter 5:10 And after you have suffered for a little while, de, (cc) paqo,ntaj pa,scw (suppl. ptc./a/a/am2p; "after having suffered"; antecedent to the 4 future verbs immediately following in the Greek text) ovli,gon ovli,goj (adv.; lit. few, little, small; of time "for a little while") the God of all grace, who called you to His eternal glory in Christ, ~O qeo,j (d.a. + n-nm-s) pa,shj pa/j (a--gf-s; "of all") ca,ritoj( ca,rij (n-gf-s; "grace") o` kale,saj kale,w (d.a. + adj. ptc./a/a/nm-s; "who called/the One calling") u`ma/j su, (npa-2p; ref. believers) eivj (pa) auvtou/ auvto,j (npgm3s; ref. God) th.n h` aivw,nion aivw,nioj (d.a. + a--af-s; "eternal/everlasting") do,xan do,xa (n-af-s; "glory") evn (pL) Cristw/| Cristo,j (n-Lm-s) will Himself perfect, confirm, strengthen and establish you. auvto.j auvto,j (npnm3s; ref. God; emphatic; "He Himself") katarti,sei( katarti,zw (vifa--3s; to adjust, mend, restore, made complete; "will perfect"; used 13x) sthri,xei( sthri,zw (vifa--3s; to make fast, set, establish; "will confirm"; used 13x) sqenw,sei( sqeno,w (vifa--3s; "will strengthen/make strong"; hapax) qemeliw,seiÅ qemelio,w (vifa--3s; to lay a foundation, firmly ground; "will establish"; used 5x)
ANALYSIS VERSE 10:
1. Having bolstered the morale of his readers with the knowledge they are not alone in their sufferings (vs.9), Peter now re-assures them with a final promise for Ph2 victory.
2. He presents the promise in such a way as to initiate the closing of the epistle with a unique twist.
3. A literal reading of the Greek text for vs.10 is, “Now the God of all grace, who called you to His eternal glory in Christ, after you have suffered for a little while, will Himself, perfect, confirm, strengthen and establish you”.
4. While the verse takes on the form of a benediction (expressing good wishes/blessing), Peter avoids the use of the optative in the final 4 verbs (e.g., Rom.15:13; 1The.3:11-13; 5:23; 2The.2:16,17; Heb.13:20,21) substituting instead with future indicatives (cf.2Cor.13:11; Phi.4:9b).
5. This hybrid approach serves two purposes:
A. To wind down the epistle in closing.
B. To avoid loosing the impact of the perfect participle of “knowing with certainty” (vs.9), regarding truth that serves to arm the believer with moral support.
6. Though Peter is initiating his sign off, he wants to maintain the momentum of thought that knowledge of truth is designed to benefit spiritual advance.
7. That is, as important as it is for believers to recognize the fellowship of suffering in the brotherhood to bolster morale, just as important is knowing the promises of BD.
8. Peter closes with an understanding that the knowledge of all truth (both in the physical and spiritual/doctrinal realms) benefits the believer doing battle in the A/C.
9. This because our opposition is the father of lies with his followers. Cp.Joh.8:44
10. In this way, Peter concludes his letter by directly applying truth in both realms to his audience in vss.9 and10.
11. Now, on the doctrinal side, it is a promise of Ph2 doctrine that ensures success for all that suffer as +V Christians.
12. Peter began his series of exhortations in the epistle (1:13) with the thought of the doctrine of the importance of BD under grace (cp.1:10-12) and now ends likewise.
13. Here the emphasis is on the Originator of BD as the author of grace.
14. God is designated as “the God of all grace/pa/j ca,rij – pas charis”.
15. “All grace” corresponds in scope to the “manifold grace” of 1Pet.4:10 and the “grace of life” of 3:7.
16. It is God’s grace that gives way to comfort under suffering, a title used by Paul for God in 2Cor.1:3.
17. In each and every situation that the embattled suffer, God supplies ample grace.
18. There is no situation that is too great for God’s grace.
19. He provides everything we need in order to finish our course.
20. Grace is something we do not earn or deserve.
21. It is available to those who trust in God (faith-rest both passive and active) as we wait for future victory and vindication.
22. The designation of God as the One “who called you/o` kale,w – ho kaleo” refers to their past conversion (cf. 1Pet.1:15; 2:9,21; 3:9).
23. Calling is a Ph1 doctrine of salvation.
24. This reality has Ph2 implications (1Pet.1:15; 2:21), as well as Ph3 (1Pet.3:9).
25. Here the accent is upon Ph1 and future destiny of “eternal glory” that echoes 1Pet.3:9 (the “blessing” is SG3).
26. God’s “eternal glory” is, of course, the same future glory mentioned repeatedly in the letter. Cf.1Pet.1:7; 4:13; 5:1,4
27. The absence of the definite article before “in Christ/evn Cristo,j – in Christos” links the phrase with the participle “called” rather than the noun “glory”.
28. For Peter (as with Paul), “in Christ” is the immediate consequence of Divine calling (cp. 5:14).
29. “In Christ” is reference to positional sanctification (union with Christ), a privilege for believers in this dispensation.
30. Further, the phrase points to the doctrine of eternal security.
31. Those who are “in Christ” are safe and assured of Ph3 glory (immortality in a resurrection body).
32. The participial phrase “after you have suffered for a little while/pa,scw ovli,goj – pascho oligos” stands in contrast to “eternal glory”.
33. Peter has emphasized the contrast of these two ideas previously. Cf.1Pet.1:11; 4:13; 5:1
34. Paul also makes the distinction. Cp.Rom.8:18; 2Cor.4:17
35. The whole phrase echoes the “even though now for a little while, if necessary…” of 1Pet.1:6.
36. Christian suffering pales in comparison to the SG3 vindication brought to us at the Rapture.
37. Peter then plugs in 4 future promises of certainty for believers willing to endure enabling them to weather the conflict that is against them.
38. The verbs are initiated with he emphatic “Himself/auvto,j - autos” emphasizing the truth and reality for God’s part toward +V to ensure their survival in terms of Ph2.
39. The four verbs are roughly synonymous and designed to doctrinally lift their morale.
40. The future tenses are designed to compliment the certainty of the perfect participle “knowing” in vs.9
41. They sum up what God will accomplish in the spiritual development of the “brotherhood” in order that they might prevail on their way to ultimate vindication. i.e., “eternal glory”.
42. The verb “will perfect/katarti,zw – katartizo” means “adjust/fit or join together”.
43. It is used of James and John mending their fishing nets, thus preparing them for service Mar.1:19
44. The cognate noun “katartismo,j – katartismos” is used in Eph.4:12 where the communication gifts “equip” the body of Christ for service (application).
45. The word group has the connotation of being set right. Cf.1Cor.1:10; “made complete”
46. In 2Cor.13:11 the verb is used likewise by way of command (be made complete).
47. It is used of the restoration of a believer caught in a notable sin in Gal.6:1 (restore).
48. In 1The.3:10 it is used of completing what may be “lacking in” Ph2 understanding.
49. In Heb.10:5 it is used of the genetic weaving (prepared) of Christ’s humanity.
50. In Heb.11:3 it is used of the various spheres of creation.
51. In Heb.13:21 it is used in the optative in a benediction in which the author wishes that believers may be “equipped” for every good work in order to accomplish God’s will.
52. The condensed thought for our verse is that of spiritual improvement via the function of GAP.
53. God will fill in all the blanks of BD so that they can face whatever suffering comes their way.
54. The second verb “confirm/sthri,zw – sterizo” has the meaning of being steadfast, determined or resolute..
55. The cognate adjective “stereo,j – stereos/firm” occurred vs.9.
56. The object there was “faith”.
57. The same idea is now applied in that God will develop the faith of +V into a rock-like faith able to weather any storm. Cp.Luk.22:32
58. The verb is used of the resoluteness of Jesus with respect to His going to the Cross. Luk.9:51
59. It refers to that which is “fixed”. Cp.Luk.16:26
60. It, too, is related to GAP in Rom.1:11 and 2Pet.1:12.
61. Other references include: 1The.3:2,13; 2The.2:17; 3:3; Jam.5:8; Rev.3:2 (strengthen or established)
62. The third verb “strengthen/sqeno,w – sthenoo” is a hapax meaning “to make strong”.
63. Here it carries the idea of confidence that comes from building a repertoire of BD.
64. This further supports the resoluteness of +V.
65. The fourth verb “establish/qemelio,w – themelioo” means to ground on a firm foundation. Cf. its other 4 uses; Mt.7:25; Eph.3:17; Col.1:23; Heb.1:10
66. So it means to ground a superstructure on a solid foundation.
67. The foundation is Bible doctrine recognizing its supreme importance for Ph2 victory.
68. An extended translation of the promises could be rendered: “He will equip you (that no deficiencies remain), fortify you (that no test will deter), strengthen you (that no test is too great), and ground you (that no test can move us)”.
69. Again, all four verbs constitute things God promises to do for +V so that we can overcome the forces of evil that are against us, with a view to Ph2 victory.
70. Central to the realization of these things is the consistent intake of BD highlighting the doctrine of the Importance of Bible Doctrine.
EXEGESIS VERSE 11:
GNT 1 Peter 5:11 auvtw/| to. kra,toj eivj tou.j aivw/naj( avmh,nÅ
NAS 1 Peter 5:11 To Him be dominion forever and ever. Amen. auvtw/| auvto,j (npdm3s; ref. God) to, kra,toj (d.a. + n-nn-s; "the dominion/sovereignty/power"; same as 4:11) eivj (pa+) tou.j o` aivw/naj( aivw,n (d.a. + n-am-p; lit. into the ages; "forever/eternally") avmh,nÅ (part. interj.; "I believe it")
ANALYSIS VERSE 11:
1. Peter concludes on a final victorious note.
2. Vs.11 is an abbreviation of the doxology in 4:11.
3. In both doxologies, God is the object of praise.
4. In 4:11, the praise stemmed from recognizing the spiritual and physical assets God provides believers to function as a local church that glorifies Him through Christ.
5. The final doxology stems from God as the author of all grace providing the means for the believer’s successful Ph2 (vs.10).
6. This as a result of the truth of BD impacting the +V believer and God controlling circumstances and situations otherwise.
7. God, who is the power and authority behind all of creation ensures that +V will not ever lack in grace necessary to run their course.
8. This stirs Peter’s thoughts as to His rights of “dominion/kra,toj – kratos”.
9. This noun depicts God ruling in Sovereignty ensuring fulfillment of His word and plan.
10. It highlights the expression of His omnipotence (Luk.1:51 “mighty works; Eph.1:19; 6:10 “strength”; Col.1:11 “might”).
11. Believers serve an all-powerful God that cannot be impeded.
12. This doctrine in part gives believers confidence in “faith-rest”.
13. The doxology in effect is to still further the certainty of “knowing” (vs.9) the truth of future deliverance and vindication.
14. God will prevail because of who and what He is.
15. All enemies will be brought into subjection and the righteous will shine in the kingdom of His glory.
16. A complete confidence as to this reality is found in the +V adjusted believer as seen in the final exclamation, “Amen/avmh,n – amen; “I believe it!”.
THE EPISTLE IS = TO TRUE GRACE
EXEGESIS VERSE 12:
GNT 1 Peter 5:12 Dia. Silouanou/ u`mi/n tou/ pistou/ avdelfou/( w`j logi,zomai( diV ovli,gwn e;graya parakalw/n kai. evpimarturw/n tau,thn ei=nai avlhqh/ ca,rin tou/ qeou/ eivj h]n sth/teÅ
NAS 1 Peter 5:12 Through Silvanus, our faithful brother (for so I regard him), Dia. (pAbl; "through/by"; denotes agency) Silouanou/ Silouano,j (n-Ablm-s) tou/ o` pistou/ pisto,j (d.a. + a--gm-s "the faithful") avdelfou/( avdelfo,j (n-gm-s; "brother") w`j (comp. conj.; "as/so") logi,zomai( logi,zomai (vipn--1s; "I keep on regarding/thinking/considering") I have written to you briefly, e;graya gra,fw (viaa--1s; epistolary aorist; "I have written") u`mi/n su, (npd-2p; ref. believes ) diV dia, (pAbl+) ovli,gwn ovli,goj (ap-gm-p; small/few; lit. through few words [implied], hence, "briefly") exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God. parakalw/n parakale,w (circ. manner ptc./p/a/nm1s "exhorting") kai, (cc) evpimarturw/n evpimarture,w (circ. manner ptc./p/a/nm1s; "testifying/attesting/bearing witness"; used 1x) tau,thn ou-toj (near dem. pro./af-s "this") ei=nai eivmi, (inf. object/pa; epexegetic; "to be/is") avlhqh/ avlhqh,j (a--af-s "the true/genuine") ca,rin ca,rij (n-af-s; "grace") tou/ o` qeou/ qeo,j (d.a. + n-gm-s) Stand firm in it! sth/teÅ i[sthmi (vImpaa--2p; "stand") eivj (pa+) h]n o[j (rel.pro./af-s; "in it"; ref. grace)
ANALYSIS VERSE 12:
1. The epistle concludes with an addendum concerning its penning and additional personal thoughts of Peter.
2. This serves to authentic his authorship addressing any questions of counterfeit through a noticeable difference of penmanship or style from other of his original autographs as might be in circulation.
3. As noted in our introduction to the letter, an objection to Petrine authorship stems from a sophisticated use of grammar from schooling beyond that of the common man.
4. Peter now makes clear that he has employed a “scribe”, one Silvanus, through whom he has dictated this inspired book of the N.T. canon.
5. The name Silvanus is the Latin transliteration into Greek of the Greek name “Silas”.
6. It is almost unanimously accepted by commentators as the same Silas of the book of Acts. Act.15:22,27,32,34,40; 16:19,25,29; 17:4,10,14,15; 18:5
Silas was associated with Paul in his missionary work to the Greek cities
8. Paul and Peter use his Roman cognomen (surname) Silvanus in their epistles (2Cor.1:19; 1The.1:1; 1The.1:1; 1Pet.5:12).
9. The Latin name is derived from Roman mythology of the Roman god of fields and forest, protector of flocks and cattle and later came to be indentified with the gods Pan and Faunus.
10. It was not uncommon for Paul to have his letters transcribed by another. Cp.Rom.16:22; 1Cor.16:21; Col.4:18; 2The.3:17
11. It is possible that Peter adds these final words in his own handwriting, as Paul often did as a standard practice.
12. Silas evidently also served as Paul and Peter’s secretary on occasion.
13. He was known for his writing skills and helped compose the Apostolic Decree of Act.15:23-29 (vs.23a; the NAS “sent” is literally “to write” in the Greek).
14. It is conjectured that
Silas attached himself to Peter when in
15. It is further possible that Silas was the courier of this letter in which case the preposition “through/Dia. – dia” serves a double purpose.
16. The commendation of Silas “our faithful brother/o` pisto,j avdelfo,j – ho pistos adelphos (lit. “the faithful brother”) indicates that he was a valued co-worker throughout his career.
17. The mention of Silvanus in this fashion is not prompted as a case of a questionable status, but a further attestation of his continued integrity.
18. This is brought out in the parenthetical phrase “for so I regard him”.
19. The present indicative of the verb “I regard (consider)/logi,zomai – logizomai” that denotes continuous action stresses that fact (lit. “I keep on regarding”).
20. Further, as the introductory definite article indicates Silvanus as one with a notable history of faithful service further fits identifying him as Silas.
21. While Silvanus was probably well known in
this region of
22. It can’t help but be noticed that Peter expresses his own personal opinion in this case (1st person singular of the verb).
23. It goes to show that opinions of those grounded in the truth are designed to carry much weight in +V circles in light of any contradicting opinions otherwise.
24. Here specifically as it is the opinion of their spiritual shepherd.
25. The phrase “I have written to you briefly” is literally in the Greek text, “through few [words] I have written to you/dia, ovligoj gra,fw su, - dia oligos grapho su”.
26. This second use of the preposition of agency “through/dia” is not brought out in the English of the NAS.
27. Its importance is in the fact that it reveals a dual agency used by God to reveal His directive will to sustain the Church in its post-Apostolic era: He employed +V human agents to write it down in words for posterity.
28. Under inspiration (later transmission), the Canon of Scripture was formed in this fashion.
29. Peter then succinctly describes the content of the letter, “exhorting and testifying that this is the true grace of God”.
30. The circumstantial participles “exhorting/parakale,w – parakaleo and testifying/ evpimarture,w – epimartureo” further describe the nature of what Peter means in having “written briefly”.
31. The adjective “briefly” looks beyond the brevity of the length of the letter and focuses more on style.
32. The writer of Hebrews ends his letter in the same vein (Heb.13:22), and it is easily more than twice the size of 1st Peter.
33. That its style is exhortative indicates that the epistle, while instructive, is more designed to encourage rather than teach.
34. While many doctrines are exposed in the epistle, they were mostly inferred by Peter rather than explicitly taught.
35. It follows our previous line of thinking that these Asian believers were no spiritual slouches, but well informed doctrinally as would be expected of those pushing maturity (cp.1:14 not immature, but at least “adolescents”).
36. It further infers that basic doctrines are numerous and cover a wide field of principles and concepts.
37. Peter exhorts assuming their understanding of the doctrines implied.
38. Peter’s primary intent for writing was not to fulfill the role of face-to-face teaching, but to encourage these believers to hang in there in the midst of suffering in the A/C.
39. The 2nd participle “testifying” indicates Peter’s function as a witness to something.
40. He is a witness to all that he has written by virtue of his own experiences and understanding of God’s will as he has been a true sharer of Christ’s sufferings (cp.5:1) for the sake of His name (4:14).
41. He has exhorted them with the same principles of truth that he himself lives by and can validate as real in his own Christian life.
42. He then describes the body of the letter as “the true grace of God”.
43. Peter equates the BD written with God’s grace that is genuine (not from the world).
44. Grace, like anything else, is subject to distortion.
45. When to the right, we call it “legalism”; when to the left, “liberalism”.
46. When believers operate outside God’s directive will (BD), true grace ends, judgment begins. Cp.Deu.5:32-33; 17:11-12; 28:14-15
47. The “true grace of God” refers to every grace factor related to Ph1,2 & 3.
48. Peter has previously addressed the principle of grace with the Greek term “ca,rij – charis” in the letter 9x (1:2,10,13; 2:19,20; 3:7; 4:10; 5:5,10).
49. Doctrine (what the text of Scripture says), as the case of this epistle, defines grace.
50. By taking the letter seriously, the recipients will fulfill the command to “Stand firm in it!”
51. The prepositional phrase and relative pronoun “in it/ei,j o[j – eis hos” refers to grace as defined by BD.
52. The proper understanding of grace comes from the literal grammatical approach to exegesis.
53. God’s plan is a plan of grace and only through BD will the believer be a benefactor of that grace in its most complete sense.
EXEGESIS VERSES 13 – 14:
EXTENDED GREETINGS FROM
GNT 1 Peter 5:13 VAspa,zetai u`ma/j h` evn Babulw/ni suneklekth. Kai. Ma/rkoj o` ui`o,j mouÅ
NAS 1 Peter 5:13 She who is in
STAY BONDED IN LOVE/BENEDICTION
GNT 1 Peter 5:14 avspa,sasqe avllh,louj evn filh,mati avga,phjÅ eivrh,nh u`mi/n pa/sin toi/j evn Cristw/|Å
NAS 1 Peter 5:14 Greet one another with a kiss of love. Peace be to you all who are in Christ. avspa,sasqe avspa,zomai (vImpad--2p; "Greet"; same as 5:13) avllh,louj avllh,lwn (recipr. pro./am2p; "one another" [of the same kind]) evn (pI; "with") filh,mati fi,lhma (n-In-s; "a kiss"; used 7x) avga,phjÅ avga,ph (n-gf-s; "of love") eivrh,nh (n-nf-s; "Peace") u`mi/n su, (npd-2p) pa/sin pa/j (a--dm-p) toi/j o` (d.a./dmp; "who/the ones" +) evn (pL) Cristw/|Å Cristo,j (n-Lm-s)
ANALYSIS VERSES 13 – 14:
this epistle from
2. Peter arrived at this destination ~63 AD and spent the remainder of his life there, along with Paul, until both were martyred by Nero ~66 AD.
The phrase “She who is in Babylon” is both a
cryptic and prophetic reference to the Christian community in the city of
4. While many commentators take issue with the symbolism and insist on Peter’s wife as the reference, they disregard:
Mesopotamia (present day
B. By all indications, married Apostles took their wives with them in their ministries (cf.1Cor.9:5).
C. They are inconsistent in interpretation as the same commentaries readily accept Peter’s ref. to “my son, Mark” as metaphorical and hence, “symbolic”.
In the first
century AD “Babylon/Babulw,n – Babulon” was becoming, in Jewish and Christian
circles, a cryptic, or symbolical, title for
designation appears more than anything else to anticipate the
At the time
of writing, the mother-son cult was worshipped there as it had been in all
places. See Doctrine of Religious
9. The head of the cult was the Pontifex Maximus (initiated by Julius Caesar, 63 AD), its chief priest.
10. That Peter is referring to the true church at
11. The doctrine of election recognizes all that God foreknew. Cf.1Pet.1:1,2
12. Peter had made it known to the saints at
13. For a personal touch Peter mentions Mark, or John Mark, the evangelist that in the early days had been a member of
14. He was a cousin to Barnabas (Col.4:10).
15. He had set out with Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey (Act.12:25, but had turned back, to the displeasure of Paul (cf.Act.15:37,28).
16. Years later he was at Paul’s side during his Roman imprisonments. 2Tim.4:11
18. According to tradition (Papias in Eusebius), he attached himself to the apostle Peter, deriving much of his material for the Gospel of Mark.
19. Papias refers to Mark as Peter’s “interpreter” (hermeneutes).
20. The metaphorical description “my son/evgw o` ui`o,j – ego ho huios” reflects the relationship of trust and affection between the older man and his younger friend.
21. These tidbits of historical information lend the ring of historical authenticity.
22. After conveying the Roman church’s greeting, the author then bids his reading audience in vs.14 to “Greet one another with a kiss of love”.
23. Paul concludes several of his letters with a similar request. Rom.16:16; 1Cor.16:20; 2Cor.13:12; 1The.5:26
24. The practice evidently established itself early with Christians, as a token of their affectionate spiritual ties, to embrace one another in true fellowship under FHS.
25. Peter finally concludes with the benediction, “Peace be to you all who are in Christ”, where the optative (may) is implied.
26. His mention together of “grace” (vs.12) and now “Peace/eivrh,nh – eirene” recalls his opening benediction of 1:2.
27. Paul normally includes a call for grace in his letters. Rom.16:20; 1Cor.16:23; 2Cor.13:13; Gal.6:18; Eph.6:24; Phil.4:23; Col.4:18; 1The.5:28; 2The.3:18; 1Tim.6:21; 2Tim.4:22; Ti.3:15; Philm.25).
28. The persons addressed being described as “in Christ/evn Cristo,j – en Christos”, suggests that “peace” is grounded in relationship with Christ.
29. As a result of union with Christ, the individual has moved into a new sphere of existence.
30. He is united with Christ and shares His life and destiny.
31. Peter refers to “peace” in its fullest scope.
32. Ph2 peace refers to inner peace, the consequence of intake and application of BD.
33. Only then can we suffer, if need be, and have inner peace and happiness.
34. Review the Doctrine of Grace.