JOH 1:19 Kài àuçü îåçin ü æàrçurià çou Iwànnou, oçî àãîåçîilàn

[ãroj àuçon] oi Iouëàioi îx Iîroåoluæwn iîrîij kài Lîuiçàj inà

îrwçüåwåin àuçon, äu çij îi; (GRK)

EXEGESIS VERSE 19: And this is the witness of John, (kài ouçoj

îiæi ü æàrçurià o Iwànnüj [cc. + - "this ; points

out something near or close at hand; it is the near context of

Jn/B's witness; it is in apposition to "witness"; + 3sPA + NsF

noun + d.a.GsM proper name -"John"; subjective genitive, produces

the action of the witness.]) when the Jews sent to him priests

and Levites from Jerusalem (oçî o Iouëàij [sub.conj. + d.a.NplM

- "the Jews". Used 239x; 46x ref. to Judea (Southern kingdom);

71x in John; 80x in Acts; of the times used in John, 25x it is

used in the sense we have here which is in ref. to the Sanhedrin

or ruling class of Israel. Refs. to the Sanhedrin: 2:18,20;

5:10,15,16,18; 16:41,52; 7:1,11,13,15,35, 8:22,31,48,52,57;

9:18,22; 10:24,31,33; 11:8; 13:33. The Sanhedrin was the highest

echelon of the ruling class of Judaism. Traditionally it

originated with the 70 elders who assisted Moses (Nu.11:16-24).

In the time of Christ it was predominantly Sadducean in makeup.

The Sadducees were the liberal sect of religious government and

were of priestly aristocracy {wealthy, disliked by most with a

small following}. They didn't believe in the soul, after life,

resurrection, rewards, angels and demons. According to Josephus

{historian born 37/38 AD of Jewish priestly descent; died early

2nd Century; wrote books "Jewish Antiquities", his "Autobiography"

and "History of the Jewish War"; he is considered and excellent

external ref.}, the High Priest was the "President of the

Sanhedrian" {thus Caiaphas was President at the trial of Christ

cp.Jn.18:24}. Its makeup also included the scribes and Pharisees

{scribes were the legal experts/"lawyers" of the time; Pharisees

were the conservative sect of Judaism with the most influence of

the people; they were legalists.}] àãoåçîllw [ãroj àuçoj] iîrîuj

kài Lîiçüj îk Iîroåoluæà [3plAAI - "sent with a commission";

same as vs.6; this was an official deputation, not just a casual

inquiry; + prep. + ref. Jn/B; + AcplM + cc + AcplM

-"priests and Levites"; D.O. of the verb "sent"; + prep. + AbplN

-"out from Jerusalem". They came out from the city to where Jn/B

was at in Bethany vs.28 {N. of the Dead Sea}. The Levites were

one of the 12 tribes of Israel. Their major role was as ministers

of the Tabernacle {Nu.}. Their ministry was subservient to the

priests. Levites were forbidden to serve as priests upon penalty

of death, which was a privilege reserved for Aaron, his sons and

lineage {Nu.3:5-10}. There is much debate on the problem of the

relationship between the priest and the Levites i.e. in

recognition of ref. to the Levitical Priesthood. It will suffice

to note that it was 1st intended to maintain an obvious difference

in rank and responsibility of the two, but there is a seeming

overlap of function in the common goal of administering the

rituals of the Mosaic Law and the temple. In our vs. the contrast

seems to emphasize those who performed priestly functions and

those simply with high social and political status within the

religious hierarchy from the tribe of Levi.]) to ask him, "Who

are you?" (inà îrwçàw àuçoj [conj.denoting purpose; "in order

to"; + 3plAAS - "ask/they might ask"; mood of potential; used 67x;

means ask/to question/inquire. It suggests that the one asking is

on equal footing with the person of whom he requests. The other

verb "to ask"/àiçîw suggests the petitioner of being one of lessor

position. Our verb suggests minimally a MA of equality if not

superiority rather than humility; + ref.Jn/B] äu çij

îiæi [pro.Ns + interr.adj.Nsm + 2sPa])

JOH 1:20 kài wæologüåîn kài ouk ürnüåàço, kài wæologüåîn oçi Egw

ouk îiæi o Criåçoj. (GRK)


EXEGESIS VERSE 20: And he confessed, and did not deny, and he

confessed, (kài oæologîw kài ouk àrnîoæài [cc. + 3sAAI -

"confess/acknowledge/cite/name"; used 23x; same verb as 1Jn1:9; +

cc. + strong neg. + 3sADI - "deny/disown/renounce"; used 30x] kài

oæologîw (oçi) [cc. + 3sAAI + (Conj: serves here as a recitative;

i.e. to introduce a direct quote; not reflected in our English

translation)] I am not the Christ. ( Egw ouk îiæi o Criåçoj

[ + neg. + 1sPa + d.a.NsM])

JOH 1:21 kài ürwçüåàn àuçon, Ti oun; äu Hliàj îi; kài lîgîi, Ouk

îiæi. O ãroíüçüj îi åu; kài àãîkriéü, Ou. (GRK)

EXEGESIS VERSE 21: And they asked him, (kài îrwçàw àuçoj

[cc. + 3plAAI +]) "What then? Are you Elijah?"

(çij oun îiæi åu Hliàj [interr. + conj. "then/therefore"; + 2sPa

+ + NsM - "Elias/Elijah"]) And he said, "I am not."

(kài lîgw Ouk îiæi. [cc. + 3sPAI -"he said/responded"; used

1500x+; + neg. + 1sPA]) "Are you the Prophet?" (îiæi åu o

ãroíüçüj [2sPA; + pro.Ns; + d.a.NsM - "the prophet"; a particular

prophet.]) And he answered, "No." (kài àãokrivoæài, Ou. [cc. +

3sADI "to answer solemnly/seriously"; compound from apo {from} and

krino {to judge}; used 232x; + neg. "No".])



1. John now formally begins the historical narrative of the


2. He completely bypasses the recording of:

A. The birth of Jesus and John the Baptist. Lk.1:5-79;


B. Of their early life and growth. Lk.1:80; 2:40-52

C. Of the opening event of Jesus' ministry and His baptism

by John. Mt.3:13-17; Mk.1:9-11; Lk.3:21-23a

D. Of Jesus' temptation by Satan in the Judean desert.

Mt.4:1-11; Mk.1:12-13; Lk.4:1-13

3. It was Jesus' baptism by John that was the mark of the

beginning of His ministry at about 30 years of age. Lk.3:23

4. So from the temptation on some 40+ days are omitted.

Mt.4:1-2; Mk.1:12-13; Lk.4:1-2

5. John records a series of events which:

A. Are unique to his record.

B. Occurred just after the Great Temptation.

C. Covers a period of 7 days from 1:10-2:10. (vs.29 =

day 2; vs.35 = day 3; vs.43 = day 4; 2:1 = day 7. Days

5 & 6 are for travel into Galilee.)

6. Jn/B's witness which was dovetailed into the Prologue

(vs.6-8;15-17) is now given in a continuous account over

period of 3 days (vss.19-34).

7. Witness is a main concept of this account of Christ's life.

8. We are to accept these witnesses individually and as a whole

so to increase our confidence and faith in God's plan. (Ex.

the harmonization of all the gospels.)

9. Two examples of his witness are given. (Mt.,Mk.,Lk. record

the remainder.)

10. The 1st example is seen in his reply to a deputation sent out

by the religious establishment from Jerusalem.

11. The term "Jews" refers to the ruling body of Judaism, the


12. At the commencement of Jn/B's ministry there was a widespread

Messianic expectation. Lk.2:38; 3:15

13. The sudden appearance of this strange prophet who baptized

and harken back to the prophets of old further stirred the

people up. Mt.3:1-6; Mk.1:2-6; Lk.3:3-6

14. Many came out to see and hear him (Mt.3:5; Mk.1:5) and many

were saved and baptized (Mt.3:5 cp.Lk.1:16-17).

15. Water baptism was new to Israel and would naturally create

curiosity among the people.

16. The religious establishment could not overlook this new

religious movement with such a following.

17. So a formal delegation was sent to get first hand


18. This new ritual of water baptism probably appealed to their

religious reversionism thus heightening more their curiosity

and concern.

19. Judaism had sunk into legalism, i.e., ritual without reality,

and with widespread Messianic expectation a reputation of

prophecy of the coming Messiah.

20. It is clear through the study of the gospels however, their

viewpoint concerning Messiah was one of providing political

deliverance, not spiritual. Jn.6:15

21. It is easy to see their interest in this man of the

wilderness engaging in this new and unknown ritual. (Jn was

a man's man visually rugged looking. He could be a great

warrior in their eyes and their mystic view of the power of

ritual further salivates thru this water baptism.)

22. That they did not lean heavily in this direction, why is

their 1st question responded with "I am not the Christ."

23. That there were adjusted types in known, but the nation as a

whole was in religious reversionism.

24. The delegation was sent by the Pharisees, the dominant sect

of Judaism vs.24.

25. The Levites held high positions in the religious hierarchy.

26. Among their duties were to provide Temple Police; music at

Temple services cf. "Mishnah" - a rule book of teachings of

the O.T. and was recognized as being on the same level as

the O.T., and according to 2Chron.35:3, they were teachers.

27. The priests were in charge of the Temple ritual.

28. As JnB came from a priest family (Lk.1:5ff), one might

speculate that the priests would have a special interest in

his activity.

29. Since John did not conform, officialdom wanted to know more

about him.

30. In the eyes of the highest leaders, what two better

representative groups to send than those expert in rituals

and educators of the O.T.

31. Their 1st question was simple and open, "Who are you?"

32. John discerning the drift of the inquiry responded. (He knew

where they were coming from)

33. We have a rather complicated expression to indicate the

emphatic nature of his denial; "And he confessed, and did not

deny, and he confessed,.."

34. His negative response "I am not the Christ", was a part of

his positive witness.

35. John vigorously and emphatically repudiated any suggestion or

thinking of others that he might be the Messiah.

36. The repetitive use of confessed implies the

pushiness/aggressiveness of the questioning. (They were

seeking to impose their own ideas as to who he was.)

37. He knew their presumptuous desire to identify him as Messiah.

38. What he did not deny was the truth about who and what he was.

39. John was in no way going to allow any false conceptions to

continue to breed in regards to his person as Messiah. (He

isolates any approbation or power lust his STA may have.)

40. The Greek term "Christ" is equivalent to the Hebrew


41. Both mean "Anointed One"; Criåçoj - xywm (mashiach).

42. After John's emphatic denial as to being Messiah, the

delegation then take a shot to other speculative ideas as to

whom they think John might be.

43. It is interesting to note they continue to impose their own

theological conclusions of identification rather than just

let John provide the true answer. (This is a mark of

religious rev. They are -V to the truth especially if it

doesn't match their grid (here, arrogance). They were quick

to speak and slow to hear. This is not the same as standing

firm in doctrine.)

44. It had been foretold by Malachi and Isaiah that before the

2nd advent the Lord would send Elijah the Prophet. Mal.4:5;


45. John denies that he was Elijah resuscitated.

46. While Elijah will precede Messiah's 2nd advent (also cp.

Rev.11:3ff of the two witnesses/prophets; the other being

Moses?), it was John who preceded the 1st advent.

47. Jesus Himself said that John is "Elijah who is to come" in


48. John on the other hand as here, never drew attention to

himself intimating (suggesting) he was Elijah or even like


49. While John refused the comparison, Jesus compared him to


50. John's manner, dress and ruggedness make him a Elijah figure

making it easy to see the delegations speculation in this

direction. (They have their eyes on the physical, not


51. Though John rejected the identification suggested by his

interviewers, it is not in contradiction of Jesus who bestows

it upon him.

52. He simply denies their speculative trend to make him the

Elijah who will precede Messiah before His establishment of

the Kingdom at the 2nd advent. (He again squelches their

distorted theological understanding of O.T. prophesy in

regards to the advents of Christ.)

53. Part of John's greatness is seen in the fact he never

manipulated the facts for his own self-gain. (To say John

didn't understand his role in dual fulfillment is

unthinkable, but to suggest it here would brew up more the

already distorted thinking of the religious leaders. It also

sets up the O.T. quote in vs.23 where he quotes Is.40:3 which

is the same as Mal.4:5 but doesn't mention Elijah. Those

really +V will seek for the answer.)

54. His reward in time for his faithfulness here is that Jesus

points out that he is the Elijah of the 1st advent. (John

lets Jesus do the bragging or blowing the horn concerning the

great role he has to play as forerunner. John didn't seek

approbation from men, but of God.)

55. The 3rd attempted identification is the Prophet, who would be

like Moses; predicted in Dt.18:15,18.

56. The Jews expected all sorts of prophets to appear in

connection with Messiah's coming. Mt.16:14; Mk.6:15; Lk.9:19

57. Jewish theological viewpoint is to say at the least fuzzy

with regards to The Prophet. Jn.7:40ff

58. More particularly they expected a man of the stature of

Moses; Dt.18:15 "The Lord your God will raise up a Prophet

like me ...".

59. Divine viewpoint says that the Prophet of Dt. and the Messiah

are the same. Act.3:22 (2nd advent in view vss.20-21)

60. To say that the delegation had put together the Prophet as

Messiah and were referring back to their 1st question is

really stretching it. (Not to say they're not asking if he

is the prophet of Dt., probably this is their scriptural

reference, but not as Messiah.)

61. The increasing curtness of Johns successive responses should

not be overlooked.

62. First and foremost he establishes that he is not one of such

importance to demand attention to himself.

63. It was not his person that John wanted others to focus their

attention on, but rather his message.

64. He was here to bear witness of another and he sought to

eliminate any other misconceptions with regard to his role

in the POG.

65. He knew how his words would be misconstrued. (This is a

hazard for communicators.)

66. One also cannot overlook the irony of the shortening of each

of his denials:

A. Their simplest question initiated his lengthiest and

most dogmatic denial, "('Positively!') I am not the


B. Their 2nd question received a simpler and less dogmatic

denial thus inferring, I am not The Elijah, only a type.

C. The 3rd question receives only a one word response

noting the irony, I am not The Prophet, but I am a

prophet. (Its like they get closer and closer with

their questions though theologically they are still

miles away. He responds with less aggressiveness each

time though the curtness of each response effectively

curtail their misconceptions.)

JOH 1:22 îiãàn oun àuçJ, Tij îi; inà àãokriåin ëwæîn çoij

ãîæyàåin üæàj: çi lîgîij ãîri åîàuçou; (GRK)


EXEGESIS VERSE 22: They said then to him, (lîgw oun àuçoj

[3plAAI - "to say"; ref. to the official deputation of priests and

Levites; + conj. +; ind.obj.; ref. Jn/B; the

questioners were commissioned with the responsibility to find out

who this man that was preaching and baptizing was. So far they

had no positive response to his identity, only a string of denials

to their speculations.]) "Who are you, (Tij îiæi

[interr.adj.NsM; + 2sPA; this is the same question they 1st had

asked but as we will see, their speculative attitude of previous

is exhausted and their question is a real and open solicitation of

his identity.]) so that we may give an answer to those who sent

us? (inà ëiëwæi àãokriåij o ãîæãw îgw [conj.;denotes purpose of

their question; + 1plAAS - "may give"; same verb as vss.12,17;

subjunctive is mood of potential; + AcsF - "an answer"; verb form

is apokrinomai vs.21; + d.a.DplM + DplM/AAPtc - "to those who

sent"; substantival ptc.; ref. to Jews (Sanhedrin) vs.19; + - "us"; ref.priests and Levites]) What do you say

about yourself?" (çij lîgw ãîri åîàuçou [interr.adj.AcsN + 2sPAI

+ prep."about/concerning"; +; The deputation's

concern as to who Jn/B is has shifted from one of trying to

satisfy their own egos via attempted guesses, to that of concern

with regards to their responsibilities of returning to the

Sanhedrin "empty handed" without answers.])

JOH 1:23 îíü, Egw íwnü bownçoj în çV îrüæJ, Euéunàçî çün oëon

kuriou, kàéwj îiãîn Håàiàj o ãroíüçüj. (GRK)


EXEGESIS VERSE 23: He said, (íüæi [3sAAI; used 66x; 2x in

Jn.(9:38); used here instead of lego to introduce quoting the

words of another ex.Mt.13:29; 26:61]) "I am a voice of one crying

in the wilderness, ( îgw íwnü boàw [ - "I" (am -

supplied); + NsF - "voice"/audible sound; + GsM/PAPtc - "of one

crying out"; circumstantial ptc.; when he crys out he is a voice;

used 11x; of a loud cry or to speak with a loud voice. Of Christ

crying out with a loud voice while on the cross, "My God, My God,

why have you forsaken me?", Mk.15:34; of demonic exorcism by

Philip, they were coming out (of them) "shouting with a loud

voice", Act.8:7] în ü îrüæoj [prep. + d.a.LsF adj. used as a

substantive - "in the wilderness"; means an uninhabited or

desolate place. Used 35x and always in the substantive form. It

is a place in contrast to cultivated and inhabited land. The

reference here is not an essence or substance of the geography

i.e., a literal desert or wilderness area, but is in ref. to the

spiritual condition of the nation.]) 'Make straight the way of

the Lord, ' as Isaiah the prophet said." (îuéunw [2plAAImp.-

"Make straight"; used 2x (Jms.3:4 where it is used of a

captain/pilot of a ship who determines the direction that the ship

goes. The adj. îuéuj from which our verb is derived means

straight/upright. The quotation here is from the LXX of Is.40:3,

not strictly from the Masoretic text. The word in place of

euthunw in the LXX is îçoiæàzw which means make arrangements/make

ready/ prepare. It is used with îuéuj in Mt.3:3; Mk.1:3; Lk.3:4,

The voice of one crying in the wilderness, "Make ready (îçoiæàzw)

the way of the Lord, make His paths straight (îuéuj); other uses

cp. Act.8:21.."your heart is not right before God."; Act.9:11..of

a street called "straight"; Act.13:10.."stop perverting the right

ways of the Lord; 2Pt.2:15 where -V running under the influence of

their STA's are "forsaking the right way". The 2pl means "you

all" and is in ref. to the peoples of the nation Israel.] ü oëoj

[d.a.AcsF - "the way"; D.O. of verb 'make straight'; used 101x

meaning path/road/street/journey/a way. It is used 6x in a

technical sense with ref. to the "new" sect of Christianity in the

early church all in Acts.; 9:2 of Sauls continued persecution of

those he found belonging to "the Way"; cp.19:9,23; 22:4; 24:14,22]

kurioj [GsM - "of the Lord"; gen. of description] kàéwj Håàij o

ãroéüçüj lîgw [subordinating conj. of comparison - "just as/as";

+ PNsM - "Isaiah"; sub. of verb; + d.a.NsM - "the prophet";

apposition to 'Isaiah" and denotes his office; + 3sAAI - "said"])



1. Succeeding John's curt denials as to their previous

speculative guesses, the delegation continues to press the

issue of his identity.

2. They retreat in their advancing guesswork back to their

original question "Who are you?" of verse 19.

3. Since John has unsaddled their previous false imagery of him

as Messiah, their question now reflects objectivity with

regards to his person. (Thru Jn.'s curt negative responses

they have given up on trying to guess who he is.)

4. However, this doesn't mean they have a true objective

interest as to what Jn/B has to offer them.

5. There question still "tastes" of selfish interest.

6. That interest is in regards to their personal

responsibilities to return to the Sanhedrin with answers.

7. Their mode of questioning turns from speculation to

intimidation tactics. (From STA arrogance to coercement.

"Let's see if we can can put him under fear of the

political/religious establishment's demands".)

8. They remind John it is the Sanhedrin who really wants to

know who he is. (The big boys in Jerusalem with the highest


9. They have misread John's initial denials as an attitude of

one rejecting their authority.

10. In reality he is only refusing to be identified with any of

the popular figures of eschatalogical (doctrine of the last

things/days) expectation.

11. What they want now is for John to identify himself as a

person and to justify his responses. (Whats your name, where

are you from and why are you out here ministering?)

12. The deputation have their eyes only on the physical aspect of

John as a person and not on the spiritual message he has to

offer. (This is the trend of religious types; to focus and

push 1st their theological grid. Ex. Does your church

operate like theirs; sunday school/special classes for

singles; married adults; divorcees; Bible study groups/where

did your Pastor go to seminary, etc. When you deny them via

BD, then in some cases they will then focus on your person

and try to intimidate you somehow. "Oh, thats a smll

church. You mean your Pastor 'drinks'", etc.)

13. John's reply to the deputation reflects only the issue at

hand i.e., prepare for your Messiah. (Don't let people get

you off the subject/issue at hand.)

14. He quotes from Is.40:3 from the LXX.

15. The entire vs. of Is.40:3 from the LXX is recorded in the

synoptics and applied to John by their authors. Mt.3:3;

Mk.1:3; Lk.3:4

16. The quotes in the synoptics are almost verbatim the LXX.

(The only difference is the last sentence in the LXX; "Make

our God's paths straight vs. make His paths straight").

17. In our vs. John uses only a part of the verse with slight

deviation. ("I am" is added and "make straight" vs. "make

ready" the way. îuéunw vs. îçoiæàzw.)

18. While the prophecy is fulfilled in the events of the 2nd

coming it applies also to the 1st advent.

19. A resuscitated Elijah will appear in Israel at the beginning

of the tribulational period as one of two witnesses to the

coming Messiah cf. Rev.11:3f.

20. Israel is a nation corporately in unbelief at the beginning

of the tribulational period. Ez.37:1-14 valley of dry bones;

Mt.21:18-20 cp. Mt.24:32-34 parable of the fig tree, the fig

tree only puts forth branches and leaves at a young age but

no fruit/figs; also cp. Ez.36:22-24

21. Israel corporately at the 1st advent also is desolate

spiritually. Mt.23:37

22. John at the 1st advent as Elijah at the 2nd, are voices

calling the people to repentance.

23. The imagery of reversionism recovery for the Jews of John's

time is to make straight the road of the Lord.

24. The road must be straight not circuitous, illustrating that

the SAJG is only thru faith directed toward Messiah, not

through any other systems of faith or works.

25. John intentionally changes the word of the quote from "make

ready" the way to "make straight" the way to infer that the

present thinking of the religious leaders of Jerusalem were

not even close in their approach to salvation.

26. As a ship captain influences the direction of the ship, so

the religious leaders were prominent in influencing the

peoples of Israel spiritually.

27. In other words, they needed to demolish the system of works

for salvation that they were promoting and teaching the

peoples and build a new "gospel presentation" of faith in


28. To "make ready" the way is also a call for salvation but

implies that the road only needs refurbishment i.e., the Jews

of the 2nd advent corporately need only convincing that

Christ was their Messiah and will believe in Him for

salvation. Rev.11:13 (mass +V in Jerusalem for SAJG)

29. The theology of the Jews at the 1st advent was so distorted,

the present system would not get them even close to

identifying Jesus as Messiah and believing in Him. (They

were looking for a Messiah to deliver them physically, not


30. The road being straightened was the people getting their

spiritual act together so that when Messiah appeared

publicly they would individually be ready.

31. The aorist imperative is directed at the delegation and

others to remove the hmvwpt from their thinking so as to be

objective regarding the Lord's public ministry.

32. Though corporately Israel remained negative, for many it

meant the SAJG cp. Act.19:1-4; Lk.1:16-17.

33. The last part of the quote that John omits is a call to make

the MAJG. (Make His paths straight is imagery of trails

apart from the main road and denotes the application of BD

for the believers in time.)

34. His omission of this part is to avoid "muddying the water"

with regards to the main issue i.e., 1st and foremost repent

of your present system of salvation or maturity will never

even be an issue.

35. So John is fulfilling (and ultimately fulfills) his ministry

as a witness to unbelieving Israel to repent in their

attitude regarding Messiah. Act.13:25

36. The whole purpose of his quotation is that it gives no

prominence to the communicator.

37. While he answers the questioner's inquiry not according to

their intents, he answers it with integrity of BD relating to

God's plan for him as forerunner. (He adds "I am" to the

quote to denote his role as a person in God's plan.)

38. He never gave anyone an excuse to get their eyes on him.


JN 1:24 Kài àãîåçàlæînoi üåàn îk çwn èàriåàiwn.

EXEGESIS VERSE 24: Now they had been sent from the Pharisees.

[kài àãoåçîllw îiæi îk o èàriåàioj (cc. denotes continuity

of context;+ PFPPtc/NplM; "send forth/send out with authority or

commission; lit. 'the ones having been sent'; circumstantial;

antecedants are the Priests and Levites; same vss.6,19; Note the

contrast of John's (author) statement of their being sent under

authority of others and the deputations MA regarding their

appearance in vs.22: ãîæãw is the Ptc in vs.22 and it does not

declare (make known openly) the authority over them. They now

ref. to those who sent them only to escape embarassment of their

mistaken speculations and apply pressure on Jn/B to identify

himself;+ 3plIPFA "were"; not in NAS; + prep. + d.a.AbplM;

ablative of source. The ones ultimately responsible for the

deputation's appearance/interrogation of John. The Pharisees were

the most powerful sect of the Sanhedrin as far as followers.


1. The author now inserts a personal observation with regard to

the deputation.

2. Contrary to any facade (deceptive outward appearance) the

deputation may give of operating under their own authority,

John reaffirms verse 19 that they are under direct authority

of Jewish leadership.(The fact that the deputation is not

completely open to Jn/B that they are under orders from

their superiors rather than they were sent based on their on

initiative gives an appearance that the questioning is

their own idea and appeal to "those who sent" them vs. 22,

maybe just trying to "help them out" with information and

advise. It is an attempt to make themselves look more

important in front of others in the scheme of things. Their

disregard for their authorities in this manner are a direct

reflection of their authorities who in turn disregard God's

authority in their role as Israel's spiritual leaders. It

gives insight to the STA driven motivation of their

positions of authority as being approbation of men and power


3. Specifically that authority of the Pharisean sect of the


4. The deputation was a direct reflection of their superiors.

5. Their attempt at making Jn/B fit within their theological

mode of thinking personifies (typifies) the maladjustment of

Jewish leadership of the time. (appostello also implies

that the deputation are only a link in the system of

theological thinking and distortion promoted by the sp.

leaders of Israel. It brings out the priniciple that you

can't rise higher than the teaching. The Jewish leaders up

to the highest in the COC are ultimately responsible for

the attitude and thinking of the deputation/followers that

they send out. This is the norm. Obviously the exception

are those who are +V. The sp. leaders of Judaism had no

true regard for God's authority and His word hence; the

distortion of God's plan in words and actions are manifested

thru those who adhere to them. It's the same today in

Churches. If the Pastor distorts God's word, then his sheep

will operate under those errors. They disregard certain

doctrines/principles of WOG or add to it to promote theirs

or their churches own agenda.)

6. Their speculation, tactic of approach to John and their MA

with regards to themselves, are a mirror of Pharisaism.

7. Their whole system of dealing with others was one of trying

to throw off balance spiritually anyone who was not privy to

the truth of God's word. (Applic.: Religious types can

make you a victim if you don't have the mind of Christ

within you or you succomb to you STA.)

8. The Pharisees were the dominant religious sect of Judaism in

the time of Christ. (Other sect being Saduccees.)

9. Their origins date to the inter testament period. (By

134-104 BC, they had much influence and support of the

people; Josephus, Antiquities 13.288-300.)

10. By 200 AD, Judaism was the same as Pharasaic teaching.

11. They taught that since the Babylonian exile was caused by

Israels failure to keep the Torah/Law, something had to be

done to ensure this would never reoccur.


1st CW 1st Exile ýnd CW ýnd 3rd CW

Exodus/Egypt [ ] Exile

1445BC 1405BC 7ý1BC 586BC 516BC 70AD-1948AD


N.King. S.King.

Giving of Conquest Israel/ Judah/ Return Romans

Law/ Israels /Joshua Assyria Babylon /Judah

acceptance of


12. Having determined the number of commandments in the Torah,

they set out to "make a hedge" about them. (Their 70 yr

Babylonian captivity was due to idolatry, occultic activity

and immorality pervasive in the nation. They counted 613

commandments; 248 positive, 365 negative.)

13. Around each commandment they would add certain acts that

would ensure that one would not violate the principle

commandment. (One citation notes 39 added principle species

of prohibitive acts considered to be works on the Sabboth.)

14. This aspect of the hedge around the Law became oral

tradition and later accepted as equal with the written Law.

15. We use the term today of Legalism to describe this approach

to God's word.

16. The result was an excessive burden put on the people not

intended by the Law.

17. It promotes self-righteousness and hypocrisy in the


18. Their strict legalism led to the miscarriage of virtues like

love, kindness, justice, etc. Mt.23:23

19. The STA trend of arrogance and self-righteousness is so

promoted via legalism, that by the time of Christ, religious

Israel's view regarding salvation was that it could be

obtained through their own works.

20. Jesus appraisal of them is found in Mt.23. (read)

21. It was this vice of religious reversionism that brought the

destruction of Israel in 70AD.

22. It is interesting to note that a Pharasaic mark of

spirituality was in regards to how heavy one tithed.

(Monetary trend)

23. It is no wonder that the Priests and Levites operated in the

preceeding fashion in this narrative.

24. So John the author here reminds us that though the

deputation may operate under their own perceptions/agenda,

it does not negate the culperability of their superiors in

Judaism before God.


JN.1:25 kài ürwçüåàn àuçon kài îiãàn àuçJ: çi oun bàãçizîij îi

åu ouk îi o criåçoj ouëî Hliàj ouëî o ãroíüçüj;


EXEGESIS VERSE 25: And they asked him, and said to him, (kài

îrwçàw àuçoj kài lîgw àuçoj [cc. + 3plAAI "to ask/question"; same

as vss 19,21; emphasizes equality between partys; +

ref. Jn/B; + cc. + 3plAAI "said"; +; I.O. of verb.])

"Why then are you baptizing, (Tij oun bàãçizw

[interr.adj.AcsN; introduces question; + inferential conj.;

looks back to the preceeding series of questions and responses; +

2sPAI "to baptize"; from the verb bàãçw "to dip"; used 80x; Nouns:

bàãçiåæoj - used 4x of the act of baptism/washing, Mt.7:4,8;

Heb.6:2; with regards to ritual washing/cleansing Heb.9:10; o

bàãiåçüj - used 14x of the one doing the baptizing and all are

used as titles of Jn/B; bàãçiåæà - used 22x and always translated

"baptism" and indicates the institution (ordinance) of baptism.

The symbolism behind baptism is to show identification of one

thing to another. There are 8 different baptisms. This one is a

wet or ritual baptism.]) if you are not the Christ, nor

Elijah, nor the Prophet?" (îi åu ouk îiæi o criåçoj ouëî Hliàj

ouëî o ãroíüçüj [part.1st class condition "if"; assumes the

statement is true; "if" clause=protasis; conclusion=apodosis; + + neg. + 2sPAI + d.a.NsM + conj's "neither/nor" +

proper name "Elijah" + d.a.NsM.])

Jn.1:26: àãîkriéü àuçoij o Iwànnüj lîgwn: îgw bàãçizw în uëàçi:

æîåoj uæwn îåçükîn on uæîij ouk oiëàçî,

EXEGESIS VERSE 26: John answered them saying, "I baptize in

water, (o Iwànnüj àãokrinoæài àuçoj lîgw îüw bàãrizw în uëwr.

[d.a.NsM + 3sAPI "to answer"; same vs.21; emphasizes the thinking

process of his response - "think before you talk"; +

+ NsM/PAPtc "while saying"; circumstantial; + + 1sPAI;

together = "I myself baptize"; + prep. + LsN "water/H2O"]) {but}

(supplied; actually begins new sentence in the Grk) among you

stands One whom you do not know. (æîåoj åu åçükw [NsM adj."in the

middle/in the midst of"; +; ref. to deputation and

all of Israel including leadership; complementary genative is

necessary to complete the meaning of the adj. mesos; + 3xPFAI "to

stand"; action in the past with existing results "this One will

always stand"; used 9x; is one of several non-attic

(non-prominent) verbs "to stand"; the emphasis of this verb

figuratively means "to stand firm/stand fast" - 1Co.16:13..."stand

firm in the faith, act like men, be strong." cp. Gal.5:1;

Phil.1:27; 4:1; 1Thess.3:8; 2Thess.2:15; here Jn/B is using a play

on words to denote the physical reality of Messiah's existence now

as well as the spiritual reality surrounding His existence,

neither of which the Jews perceived] oj åu ouk oiëà,

[ "One whom"; D.O. of verb "to know"; + +

neg. + 2PlPfAI "to know/have knowledge of/understand"; used

extensively in NT; this verb sugests fulness of knowledge whereas

ginwwåkw vs.10 suggests inception or progress in knowledge; vs.10

is saying that humanity has no interest at all in God and His plan

(as the norm); here, the Jews knew certain facts of the OT but

there was no sp. reality in their understanding of the Bible;

their theology was so messed up that in their present state of

thinking they didn't even know what to look for in Messiah.])

JN.1:27: o oãiåw æou îrcoæînoj, ou ouk îiæi [îgw] àxioj inà luåw

àuçou çon iæànçà çou uãoëüæàçoj.

EXEGESIS VERSE 27: "{It is} (supplied) He who comes after me, (o

îrcoæài oãiåw îgw [d.a. + NsM/PPPtc "the one coming/he who

comes"; substantival ptc.; sub. is Christ; passive voice denotes

God is the agent in the timing of Christ's appearance; God has

perfect timing in all things; + prep."after/behind/following in

time; same vs.15; +] the thong of whose sandal I am

not worthy to untie." (Lit. "of whom I myself am not worthy to

untie the strap of his sandal".) (oj îgw ouk îiæi àxioj

[ "of whom"; antecedant is "the One coming after me"; + "I myself"; + neg. + 1sPAI + PNsM adj. "worthy/

deserving/proper"; this adj. makes a statement about Jn/B in a

negative sense; it shows that even the high quality of Jn.'s

spiritual life doesn't come close to measuring up to Christ's +R

standards] inà luw o iæàj ço uãoëüæà àuçoj [conj. purpose +

1sAAS "to loose/untie/release"; mood of potential; used 42x; Jn.

is saying that he is not worthy even to have an opportunity to

untie Messiahs sandal strap; it whows total humility of Jn/B with

regards to himself and speaks of Christ's humanity spiritually in

the highest of terms; + d.a.AcsM "strap/leather thong"; D.O. of

verb; used 4x - Mk.1:7; Lk.3:16 (same as here) cp.Acts 22:25; +

d.a.GsN of description "sandal/footwear"; + ref.

Christ; objective gen. receives the action from John.])

Jn.1:28: çàuçà în Büéàniv îgînîço ãîràn çou Iorëànou, oãou ün o

Iwànnüj bàãçizwn.

EXEGESIS VERSE 28: These things took place in Bethany beyond the

Jordan, where John was baptizing. (ouçoj ginoæài în büéànià ãîràn

o Iorëànou oãou o Iwànnüj îiæi bàãçizw [dem.adj.NplN "these

things"; ref. to immediated preceeding context of vss.19-27; +

3sADI "took Place"; + prep. + LsF of place; There are two

Bethanys in NT; This is not the same village about 3km East of

Jerusalem and the Mt. of Olives where Mary, Martha and Lazarus

resided; This is a place North of the Dead Sea, East of the Jordan

River; it was already a town unknown by 250AD; +prep.

'peran'-"beyond/across"; + d.a.GsM "the Jordan" river; + adv. of

place "where"; + d.a.NsM; + 3sIPFA "was"; denotes Jn regularly

engaged in this ritual; + NsM/PaPtc; circumstantial; Jn/B spent

most of his ministry in this general local.])



1. John continues his recording of the questioning by the


2. Since Jn/B has eluded their attempts to get him to directly

identify his person, they now turn to his actions.

3. The essence of their question is, "if you are not someone of

importance such as Christ, Elijah or the Prophet, why are

you engaging in this foreign practice of baptism?"

4. They would naturally question any activity not authorized by

the Law (or oral tradition) or not administered by an

eschatological figure ie; Messiah, Elijah or the Prophet.

5. Other baptisms noted during this period are:

A. One administered within the Qumran community. (A

habitat of caves NW of the Dead Sea where the Dead Sea

Scrolls were found in the early 1950's. These caves

were occupied by Essene groups. They engaged in a

bathing in water to invoke (to summon, implore)

Ez.36:25 - ref. 2nd Advent; "Then I (God) will

sprinkle clean water on you (Israel), and you will be

clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and

from all your idols." The Essenes were splinters from

Pharisaism who disagreed with their

theological/political direction. They were generally

ascetic in nature.)

B. Proselyte baptism which was to ceremonially purify

Gentiles from the pollution of their religions and was


6. John's baptism was different in that he administered it and

his authority for doing so was God cp. vs.33.

7. It is recorded elsewhere that John refused to baptize the

religious hierchy on the grounds of no repentance. Mt.3:7f

8. John's purpose of baptizing was a call to the nation for

repentance. Mt.3:11; Act.19:4 (The call for Israel to

change their mind with regard to Messiah as being their sp.

deliverance thru faith in Him versus salvation by works.)

9. Upon the individual's confession to John of their belief in

Christ, he would then submerge their body into the water and

raise them back out. Mt.3:6 (The confessing of their sins

was an overt manifestation that John needed to tell if the

individual had grasped the reality of salvation. Cp. Lk.3:3

where the emphasis is on forgiveness of sins..."And he

(Jn/B) came into all the district around the Jordan,

preaching a baptism of repentace (identifying with

BD/Christ instead of works) for the forgiveness of sins;..")

10. The water represents the WOG (Ep.5:26 vs.25.."Husbands,

love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and

gave Himself up for her;" vs.26.."that He might sanctify

(set apart) her, having cleansed her by the washing of water

with the word,..."), which is the basis for cleansing of

sins to both the unbeliever and believer. (Without God's

word we would have no gospel or instruction for


11. The submergence and resurfacing identifies the believer with

the death, burial and ressurection of Christ. Cp. Col.2:12

..."having been buries with Him in baptism, in which you

were also raised up with Him through faith in the working of

God, who raised Him from the dead." (Our baptism in union

with Christ)

12. This wet ritual of water baptism is an overt witness that

one has believed in Jesus for forgiveness (cleansing) of


13. John's baptism was specifically towards the nation Israel

(Jews) and was a call to reversionism recovery and to

believe in the One who will come after John for salvation.

14. Christ later commissioned the ritual of baptism as part of

the function/requirement to be fulfilled by believers in the

Church Age. Mt.28:19

15. The only other wet/ritual baptism authorized in scripture

other than John's and Christian baptism was Christ's baptism

administered by John. Mk.1:9-11; Mt.3:13-17; Lk.3:21-23 cp.

12:50. (Christ's baptism ID'd Himself with the cross etc.)

16. The other 5 baptisms referenced in the WOG are all

non-ritual/dry baptisms (actual identifications/real

baptisms). They are:

A. Moses: 1Co.10:2.."and all (Exodus gen.) were baptized

(identified) into Moses (type of Christ; himself a

believer) in the cloud and in the sea (dry submersions

and symbolically illustrates Spirit baptism but was

real in that they as with Moses were believers.)

B. Cross: Lk.12:50 (Christ identifies with our sins)

C. H.S.: 1Co.12:13 cp. Gal.3:26,27 (Baptized into one

body ie, Church Universal.)

D. Fire: Mt.3:11 (+J on unbelievers)

E. Israel in the millenium with the H.S. Joel 2:28;

Mt.3:11; Mk.1:8; Lk.3:16

17. John's answer to the deputation on the surface may seem

elusive and redundant. (He doesn't seem to tell them why he

baptizes and they know water is involved.)

18. As with his responses to their curiosity as to his person,

he again gives a reply to effectively get their eyes off of

his actions and onto the real spiritual issue at hand. (He

goes directly from his short response as to his baptism to


19. However, to the spiritually astute John's answer actually

encompasses the reality of his baptism.

20. The preposition în in the phrase "I baptize in water" can be

translated: "by" (the means of something); "with"

(instrumental or with the instrument/tool or implememented

with water); or "in" (in the sphere/range of action or

existence of something), which the last translation is


21. John's answer to them is that his baptism is simply in the

sphere of ritual. (His action/baptism is only a ritual and

in and of itself has no merit/spiritual reality.)

22. There is no need for John to expand further in regards to

his baptism because there is no reality behind it for the

unbelieving deputation.

23. To indulge further would only serve to feed their distorted

views in regards to keeping the rituals and Law for

salvation. (It would become an item of distraction and

interest because of their theological grid and no telling

what direction they would take it.)

24. After this quick input, John then prepares his listeners for

someone who baptizes in a different medium cf. vs.33.

25. It is the reality behind his ritual.

26. John's use of the word stands/steko, is a play on words and

has both a physical and spiritual significance.

27. Literally there is one who lives physically in their midst,

is a Jew and they have no real knowledge concerning this

person. (What OT info. do they have that gives physical

details with regards to Messiah?)

28. Spriritually this individual is so far superior to them,

there really is no comparison ie, this One stands firm and

above them in perfect righteousness while they only can

stand physically.

29. He is inferring (implying) to their Messiah.

30. Under their (deputation) current theological grid, there is

no way they would recognize Messiah even though He lives

among them.

31. John uses both sarcasm (rendering them spiritually inept)

and a figure of speech called hypocatastasis in his attempt

to get them to focus on the issue. (Hypocatastasis is a

declaration that implies a comparison between two things of

unlike nature but yet have something in common and the

subject is inferred. Messiah (inferred) and the religious

leaders spiritually were totally opposite (their natures),

yet both were Jews living in the land at the time.)

32. John continues to point out that it is the One whom John is

preparing the way as forerunner, it is He of whom he is

speaking; (He who comes after me. vs. 27).

33. John now embellishes upon the greatness of "this One".

34. He uses himself, an adjusted mature and great believer, as a

comparison to Messiah.

35. John uses this commonly understood act of subservience to

underline his own inferiority to Jesus.

36. The most menial task a slave performs for a master was to

untie his sandal strap. (The feet and sandals were dirty

from a days work or journey.)

37. The subjunctive mood of luo/to untie infers worthiness to

even have the opportunity to serve in this capacity.

("..worthy that I might..")

38. In everyway Christ is superior to John:

A. He pre-existed him as God.

B. He has a superior humanity ie, without a STA and

bypassed spiritual death.

C. He has a superior baptism.

D. He is experientially superior without personal sin(s).

E. His commission/ministry is superior as the Sacrificial


39. The doctrine of His Deity and sinlessness establishes His

superior ministry.

40. John's two-fold witness is manifested through his continuous

maintanence of humility with regards to his person and


41. Under pressure, as great as John was, he fulfilled his

responsibility to get the people to focus on He who was

greater in everyway. (Again, John never succumbed to the

opportunities to relish on himself and what he was doing,

but faithfully kept the message of BD/God's plan in the


42. His encounter with the deputation took place North of the

Dead Sea where John performed most of his ministry.





D + 2

JN.1:29: TV îãàurion blîãîi çon Iüåoun îrcoæînon ãroj àuçon kài

lîgîi: iëî o àænoj çou éîou o àirwn çün àæàrçiàn çou koåæou.

EXEGESIS VERSE 29: The next day he *saw Jesus coming to him, and

*said, (ü îãàurion blîãw o Iüåouj îrcoæài ãroj àuçoj kài lîgw

[d.a.LsF; locative of time + adv.- "next day"; compound adv.

'îãi'- "upon" emphasizing position of following in time + word for

"day" - üæîrà; used 16x.; + 3sPAI "to see"; sub.= Jn/B; used 131x;

used to denote bodily vision/the physical act of seeing; part of

the afferent impulses {sight, hearing,taste,smell & touch}; +

d.a.AcsM; D.O. of verb; + AcsM/PDPtc - "while coming";

circumstantial; + prep.; +; + cc.; + 3sPAI - "to

say/speak".]) "Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of

the world! (iëî [part.of interjection - "Behold/Look!"; for the

peoples benefit.] o àænoj [d.a.NsM - "the Lamb"; used 4x cp.

Jn.1:36; Act.8:32; 1Pt.1:19; another word used for lamb is

àrnion; it is a diminutive {a word formed from another word by

adding a suffix expressing smallness or endearment} form of

'amnos'; it is used 30x, Jn.21:15 & 29x in Rev.; all the uses

but Jn.21:15 it is used as a title for Christ. àænoj {amnos} in

the LXX is in general used some 100x in connection with lambs for

sacrifice; it is used in connection to Christ at the 1st advent in

Is.53:7; the only distinction seen in its use in scripture cp. to

arnion is amnos is used to describe Jesus in His state of humility

ie., 1st advent; arnion is used in context of His glorified state]

o éîoj o àirw ü àæàrçià o koåæoj [d.a.GsM; gen.of possession;

Jesus is God's given sacrifice for the salvation of mankind cf.

Jn.3:16; + d.a.NsM/PAPtc; adjectival modifying 'the Lamb' - "who

takes away/removes/blots out" cp. 1Jn.3:5 "...He {Jesus} appeared

in order to take away sins;..."; in the passive voice it is used

in context of believers in the local church to "put away" STA

activity Ep.4:31; used 102x; = d.a.AcsF - "the sin"; collective

singular 'all sin'; + d.a.GsM; subjective genative; ref. to all of

mankind collectively producing sin activity whether MA, overt or

sins of the tongue.])



1. The author now enters into the 2nd day of the events of one

week covered in 1:19 - 2:11.

2. On this day Jn/B sees Jesus coming toward him.

3. He directs the people present to look upon their Messiah and


4. As Jn/B verbally was faithful in his witness to the

deputation the day before, he now substantiates his

faithfulness by directing attention physically/visually

towards Messiah.

5. Whether in the presence of Jesus or not, Jn/B kept the real

spiritual issue in front of others. (He was acclimated to

his role as forerunner and never allowed himself to be made

the focal point by others, as with the deputation the day

before or now seizing the opportunity to direct others

attention to Jesus in person.)

6. Even as Jn/B identifies Messiah physically, he maintains his

proclamation of Messiah's role for spiritual deliverance.

7. The expression Lamb of God totally contradicts Judaism's

viewpoint of a Messiah who will conquer and deliver the Jews


8. A Jew familiar with the OT would immediately reflect upon

the animal sacrifice prescribed by the Law.

9. As early as Abraham, a lamb was a prominent animal used for

sacrifice cp. Gen.22:7-8.

10. The lamb was the most commonly featured levitical sacrifice.

Lev.3:7ff; 4:32ff; cp. 5:6ff; 9:3; 12:6 et al.

11. Its prominence is further enhanced by the Passover


12. By taking a healthy non-defective lamb, laying hands on its

head, cutting its throat, letting it bleed to death and

roasting/incenerating its flesh, the person and work of

Christ on the cross at the 1st advent was pictured.

13. Though is was a common part of OT ritual, it was not

efficacious for the removal of personal sins. Heb.10:1ff

14. Whether Jn/B is thinking of Is.53:7 or simply referencing

sacrificial ritual in the title he gives Jesus, there is no

excuse for the people to misread Jn/B's perception of

Christ's mission at the 1st advent.

15. Those who heard John were challenged to make the correct

application to repent of their former thinking in regards to

Messiah. (not works for Salv. but belief in Jesus - sp. vs.

physical salvation.)

16. John repeatedly told the people they had to believe in Him

to be saved, a departure from Judaism. Act.19:4

17. John's use of this expression demonstrates his true

understanding of animal sacrifice being purely symoblic not

literal; a viewpoint clearly seen the day before regarding

the downplay of his own baptism ritual.

18. A direct analogy would mean that men would have to lay their

hands on Jesus, cut his throat, allow Him to bleed to death

and take His corpse out and incinerate it.

19. A representative analogy indicates the following:

A. The lack of defects points to the spiritual

perfections of Christ, not physical perfection.

B. The laying on of hands points to imputation of sins to

the body of Christ, not actual laying on of hands.

C. Slitting the throat and bleeding the lamb to death

points to Christ's spiritual death on the cross, not

His physical blood or physical death.

D. Burning the carcass denotes the impact of the

sacrifice on God, the sweet smelling smoke pointed to

the propitiatory effect of Christ bearing sins.

20. The participial phrase, who takes away the sin of the world,

describes the culmination/highest point/climax of Jesus

existence as the sacrificial Lamb given by God.

21. All sins of the resident STA were imputed to Christ and

judged on the cross and hence removed forever.

22. The sin is a collective singular denoting all the sins of

all the members of the human race for all time.

23. The world is a universal expression emphasizing all

humanity. Heb.10:12; 1Pt.3:18; 1Jn.2:2

24. So John understood Jesus' mission clearly where His

disciples failed to fully grasp the 1st advent.


JN.1:30: ouçoj îåçin uãîr ou îgw îiãon: oãiåw æou îrcîçài ànür oj

îæãroåéîn æou gîgonîn, oçi ãrwçoj æou ün.

EXEGESIS VERSE 30: "This is He on behalf of whom I said, (ouçoj

îiæi uãîr oj îgw lîgw [proximate/near; + 3sPA; +

prep.- "on behalf of"; + - "whom";; +

1sAAI; lit. 'I myself said'; the emphasizes Jn/B

personally; the aorist tense of lego sums up in one ball of was

the witness of John concerning his past statements about Messiah

and the significance of His appearance.]) 'After me comes a Man

who has a higher rank than I, (oãiåw îgw îrcoæài ànür [prep. + - "after me"; prep. is used with ref. to time; + 3sPDI

- "comes"; present tense indicates Messiah is now on the scene and

His ministry is being executed; + NsM - "man"; this noun for man

shows there is no doubt that the one of whom John is speaking is

of male gender emphasizing the humanity of Christ;] oj îæãroåéîn

îgw ginoæài Lit. "who has taken precedence over me"

[; + prep. - "over"; +; ref.Jn/B; + 3sPFAI

- "became"; same construct as vs.15; emprosthen has the idea of

superiority of rank; the PF tense of ginomai denotes the start of

Christ's ministry some 40+ days previous to this encounter with

the existing results of His ministry now overlapping into the tail

end of John's; hence the focal point of the A/C changes from that

of the forerunner of Messiah to the man Jesus/Messiah Himself;

Christ's ministry now supercedes that of John's.]) for He existed

before me.' (oçi îiæi ãrwçoj îgw [sub.conj.causal -

"because/for"; + 3sIPF - "He existed/was"; indicates continuous

action in the past and denotes John's understanding of the deity

of the hypostatic union; + ord.adj.NsM; denotes "first/before" in

order or time; +; ref.Jn/B.])



1. John the Baptist continues with his declaration as to the

identity of Jesus who is physically and visually now in

their (Jn/B & Co.) periphere.

2. John confirms that this is the person who has been the focal

point and subject of his ministry. (The proximate/near houtos leaves no doubt that it is the individual

approaching Jn. in vs.13 that he is talking about.)

3. Everything that John has taught and proclaimed in his

ministry centered on this very individual.

4. The phrase on behalf of whom I said, shows that John has

applied fully with respect for God's plan for him as the

"forerunner of Christ".

5. He is emphasizing his role of ambassadorship. (An

ambassodor is a representative appointed by one country or

government to represent it in another; he/she is an official

messenger with a special mission.)

6. John commission by God (cp.1:6) was to represent Christ to

Israel preparing them for His appearing.

7. John's special mission was to call the nation to repentance

with regard to their thinking and attitude towards Messiah.

Cp. Mt.3:2; Mk.1:4

8. Whether his message was accepted or rejected, his fidelity

in proclaiming the true spiritual issue at hand remained

intact. Cp. Mk.6:17-28 (John's last act was to point out

the sinful activity of King Herod even though it meant death

for John cp. Mt.14:3-12.)

9. As with John, all who communicate God's plan are ambassadors

for Christ. Cp.2Co.5:20; Ep.6:20 (one of the prison

epistles written by Paul. No matter what the circumstances

are, even if in prison, it does not negate ones

responsiblity as God's representative.)

10. John didn't merely bear witness to the truth when in Jesus

presence. (This is brought out be the aorist of lego;

things he said about Christ in the past.)

11. His recognition as to his niche in God's plan of being a

representative of Christ is in total harmony of his attitude

of humility seen in the previous day's discourse cf.vs.27.

12. It further depicts the seriousness in which John took his

role as forerunner. (The fact that he considers it an

unworthy privelege to serve Jesus even in the most humble of

terms, how much greater in his mind than to have the

privelege of being a personal representative as forerunner.)

13. John quotes his own consistent witness of the Light at the

point of fulfillment. (For some 6 mos. John has been

prophesying as to Jesus public ministry: now that time has


14. At a time when John's ministry is at a peak in terms of

public interest, he tells the people to give their attention

to a ministry of precedence.

15. As faithful an ambassador as John was, the One whom he

represented is now personally present.

16. John's referal to Messiah as a man (aner) who has a

higher rank/takes precedence over me clearly denotes his

understanding of the hypostatic union.

17. This is further substantiated in Jn.3:28 where John states

that he/Jn/B was sent "before Him/Christ" as forerunner.

18. There is no way for John to be able to make both statements

of Jn.3:28 and here with regards to his ministry compared to

Christ's without an understanding of this God-man.

19. The same preposition emprosthen (translated "before" 3:28)

is used here in "has taken precedence ver/before me".

20. Of 2 prophets ministering at the same time (and place), the

one who came first had precedence. (Ex. of Elijah and

Elisha: Elisha took Elijah's place 1Kg.19:16f, but as long

as both were alive and together, Elijah maintained authority

over Elisha. Cp. 2Kg.2:3,5 where Elijah is called Elisha's


21. In addition, one must understand the isagogics of the

ancient world, which were to some extent rooted in Biblical

tradition, which held that chronological priority indicated

superiority ie., "Law of primogeniture". (The first born

male of a family usually had all rights of inheritance.)

22. John who is directing the peoples attention to this man

coming towards them is saying there is more to Him than the

physical eyes can see ie., "for He existed before me".

23. John's first proclamation as to Jesus being the Lamb who

takes away sin in vs.29 is further inhanced due to his


24. As a man, Jesus' person is one of perfect righteousness

qualifying Him as the Lamb/sin bearer. 2Co.5:21

25. As God, His attributes empower Him to forgive men for their

sins and to impart E.L. Cp.Mt.9:6; Jn.10:28

26. John in essence has summarized his mission as forerunner

compared to Christ's mission as Messiah.

27. Christ's ministry truly superceeded John's because He is God

who existed before him.

28. John was totally oriented to Jesus mission and person cp.

Jn.3:30; "He must increase, but I must decrease".

29. Everything about Jesus' ministry far surpassed that of Johns

including his baptism cp.1:33.


JN.1:31: kàgw ouk Vëîin àuçon, àll inà íànîrwéV çJ Iåràül ëià

çouço üléon îgw în uëàçi bàãçizwn.

EXEGESIS VERSE 31: "And I did not recognize Him, but in order

that He might be manifested to Israel, (kàgw ouk oiëà àuçoj àllà

inà íànîrow o Iåràül [cc/ kài/îgw; "And I"; called a

crasis; + neg; + 1sPLPFAI - "to recognize/know"; same vs.26; PLPF

acts as an IPF and represents the action as completed up to a

specific time in the past; +; ref.Man{vs.30)/Jesus; +

strong adv.; + sub.conj.- "in order that"; denotes purpose; +

3sAPS {phaneroo} - "to make visible/be evident/make clear" and

translated appear/become visible/disclose/made evident/made

known/manifest/to reveal; used 49x; the aorist marks the beginning

of Jesus ministry to Israel via His baptism by Jn/B some 41 days

ago; the subjunctive mood shows potential ie., His

manifestation/appearance/introduction {its effect} is contingent

on the volition of His audience; the passive voice denotes that

His manifestation/introduction is based on the use of an outside

agent; + d.a.DsM; I.O.; "to Israel"; Christ's ministry

geographically was confined to Israel though He is manifested to

mankind in general.]) I came baptizing in water." <Lit. because

of this/for this reason> (ëià ouçoj îrcoæài îgw bàãtizw în uëwr

[prep. + near; ref. to the preceeding context;

"because of this thing" {Christ's appearing}; not translated; +

1sADI +; puts emphasis on Jn/B; + NsM/PAPtc;

circumstantial; + prep. + LsN - "water".])



1. John the Baptist continues in his commentary concerning Jesus

as/while he is pointing Him out to the people.

2. In vs.29, John emphasizes Messiah's mission at the 1st


3. His primary mission is to be the sacrificial Lamb of God who

will remove the sin barrier between God and man.

4. In vs.30, John reiterates that this person Jesus and His

ministry is all that John has expounded upon and communicated

during his 6 months of ministry.

5. John then proclaims the superiority of Christ's ministry over

his own by pointing out the fact that He is the unique

God-man of the universe.

6. It is because of this unique attribute that enables Messiah

to take away the sins of the world. (As +R man qualifying

Him to bear sins; as God empowering Him to accept the

sacrifice and to +J and forgive sins.)

7. The use of kàgw/kago in our verse denotes a continuation and

extension of John's current proclamation regarding Jesus.

(Vs.32 sinply kai is used to denote a break in the message.

Kago is used again in vss.33,34 showing these verses are to

be taken together.)

8. John now refocuses back to the humanity of Jesus.

9. It is Jesus as a man in the sea of humanity that John didn't


10. Since John recognizes Him now, obviously he is referring to

an occasion prior to D+2.

11. When Jesus first walked up to John, John did not recognize

Him as Messiah.

12. The pluperfect of oiëà/oida (recognize) says that even if

Jesus and John's paths had crossed prior to Jesus' baptism,

John did not know who He was.

13. The expert on and herald and ambassador of Jesus, couldn't

have picked Him out in a lineup.

14. There was no distinguishing feature or inward voice that even

hinted to John that He was in His presence.

15. That John would not know Jesus is confirmed by the prophecy

of Is.53:2.

16. Yet this in no way hindered or compromised John's witness.

17. John says that contrary to not being able to physically

recognize Messiah, God's purpose to reveal/manifest Christ

would press on and John's ministry of baptizing would be a

key in this plan. (brought out by strong adv. àllà)

18. Jesus would be formally introduced to the nation/Israel

through John's ministry and baptism of Him.

19. Since the birth of Messiah, the event of Jesus baptism would

produce the first overt sign by God that Jesus was indeed the

Christ cp.vs.33.

20. This event would also mark the beginning of Christ's ministry

cp.Lk.3:23; Mt.3:13-17; Mk.1:9-11.

21. The passive tense of phaveroo/manifest, denotes the use of an

outside agent whom is John acting as forerunner for Messiah

and whose job it was to "introduce" Him to the nation.

22. The mood of potential in the manifestation brings out the

volitional aspect of John faithfully carrying out his


23. It further implies that the effect of Messiah's introduction

would be determined by the choice of its audience in its

acceptance or rejection.

24. The author has already made clear their choice overall

earlier in the prologue cp.vss.11-12.

25. Only those truly seeking Messiah would a clear

revealing/manifestation be recognized.

26. To prepare the people for the appearance of their Messiah,

John was authorized to baptize which was one of a call to the

nation for repentance.

27. A spiritually astute listner of John would key in on his

reference to the ritual.

28. In order for one to be baptized by John, they must first

change their mind with regards to salvation ie., it is by

faith in Christ, not by works; Christ is then made manifest

to them.

29. It was only after acceptance of this introduction to

Messiah/Ph1 gospel, would John then perform this ritual act.

30. The ritual itself teaches that faith in Christ identifies the

believer with His death, burial and ressurection.

31. It is ones understanding of this salvation doctrine that

opens the door for Christ's manifestation to him/her.

32. The purpose of Christ's appearance at the 1st advent was to

remove sins (1Jn.3:5) and to claim victory over darkness


33. Again, it is Israel's theological grid to look for a physical

deliverer in Messiah, not spiritual.

34. The term Israel refers to the nation of people who derived

their physical descent from the believer Israel/Jacob.

35. The use of this term is not derogatory, but a term of honor

since it makes reference to the promises of salvation which

were given to Jacob in preference to Esau.

36. To summarize this verse, John is saying that to look for

Messiah based on the physical will not reveal that this man

Jesus is He. (-V and those under their STAs have their eyes

on physical things and the reality of the spiritual

consequences/implications are hidden from them. The Jews who

were working their way to heaven missed all of the doctrine

regarding salvation from sp.death to the teaching of the

tabernacle etc.)

37. It is only with the eyes of the soul/BD in the soul is

Messiah manifested.

38. If one understands and accepts the purpose of Messiah's

mission at the 1st advent (vs.29), understands and

accepts/believes regarding His person (vs.30) and understands

and accepts they must identify with His work on the cross,

death, burial and ressurection (vs.31 "baptizing in water"),

then Messiah has truly been made manifest/revealed.



JN.1:32: Kài îæàrçurüåîn Iwànnüj lîgwn oçi çîéîàæài ço ãnîuæà

kàçàbàinon wj ãîriåçîràn îx ourànou kài îæîinîn îã àuçon.


EXEGESIS VERSE 32: And John bore witness saying, "I have beheld

the Spirit descending as a dove out of heaven, and He remained

upon Him. (kài Iwànnüj æàrçurîw lîgw oçi éîàoæài ço énîuæà

kàçàbàinw wj ãîriåçîrà îk ourànoj kài æînw îãi àuçoj [cc.; + NsM;

+ 3sAAI; + NsM/PAPtc; circumstantial; + conj.-into.quote; not

translated; + 1sPFDI - theaomai/"to see/look at/behold/observe/";

same vs.14; denotes earnest contemplation; + d.a.AcsN; ref.H.S.; +

AcsN/PAPtc; circumstantial; "to go down/descend"; used 80x;

compound verb from 'kata/down', '& baino/to go'; it denotes the

motion/direction of the H.S.; + conj."hos/just as"; comparison; +

AcsF - "dove"; used 10x of a dove or pigeon; Mt.3:16; Mk.1:10;

Lk.3:22; used 5x of literal doves; used 1x metaphorically showing

innocense..."be shrewed as serpents, and innocent as doves."; in

our verse we have a theophany of the H.S.; + prep.; + AbsM -

"heaven"; our atmospheric heaven/sky; + cc.; + 3sAAI - "meno/to

remain"; used 118x and can be translated abide/remain/live/dwell;

the aorist tense indicates from the point of theophany thru the

remainder of Christ's ministry; + prep.; +; ref. to

the humanity of Jesus.])

JN.1:33: kàgw ouk Vëîin àuçon, àll o ãîæyàj æî bàãçizîin în

uëàçi îkîinoj æoi îiãîn: îí on àn iëVj ço ãnîuæà kàçàbàinon kài

æînon îã àuçon, ouçoj îåçin o bàãçizwn în ãnîuæàçi àgiJ.

EXEGESIS VERSE 33: "And I did not recognize Him, (kàgw ouk oiëà

àuçoj [cc./; crasis; + neg.; + 1sPLPFAI; +; D.O.; ref.Christ.]) but He who sent me to baptize

in water said to me, (àllà o ãîæãw îgw bàãçizw în uëwr

îkîinoj lîgw îgw [strong adv.; + d.a.NsM/AAPtc; substantival; "He

who sent"; ref. to the Father vs.6; +; ref. Jn/B; +

PAInf - "to baptize"; expresses purpose; + prep.; + LsN - "in

water"; + remote - "that one" {not translated}; +

3sADI; +; I.O.; ref.Jn/B.]) 'He upon whom you see the

Spirit descending and remaining upon Him, (îãi oj àn oràw

[prep.; +; "upon whom"; + conditional particle {not

translated} - "if you do"; indicates that a fulfillment of the

following context must occur for it to be a true statement thus

implying a possibility that it may not occur; + 2sAAS - "to see";

subjunctive is mood of potential; it supports the conditional

particle; lit. 'you might see'; it again emphasizes John's

volition; the "seeing" of the upcoming phenomenon is contingent

upon John fulfilling his course at least to this point; it

recognizes that John could have thrown in the towel just as any

other believer might;] ço ãnîuæà kàçàbàinw kài æînw îãi àuçoj

[d.a.AcsN; + AcsN/PAPtc's "katabaino & meno" with kai/cc

connective; both are circumstantial and denote that both things

must occur; + prep.; +; ref.Jesus;]) this is the

one who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.' (ouçoj îiæi o bàãçizw în

àgioj ãnîuæà [ NsM - "this one"; + 3sPA; +

d.a.NsM/PAPtc; adjectival; "the one who baptizes"; modifies "this

one"; + prep.; + LsN adj. - "Holy"; + LsN - "Spirit"; hagios

means: sanctifies/sacred/Holy/set apart; translated saints with

ref. to believers Col.1:2; Phil.1:4:21,22; et. al.; from the root

word àzw/hazo - to venerate {look upon with feelings of deep

respect/to revere.])

JN.1:34: kàgw îwràkà kài æîæàrçurükà oçi ouçoj îåçin o uioj çou


EXEGESIS VERSE 34: "And I have seen, and have borne witness that

this is the Son of God." (kàgw oràw kài æàrçurîw oçi ouçoj îiæi

o uioj o éîoj [cc./pro.Ns.; + 1sPFAI; the PF denotes that image

of his first hand experience is still crystal clear and recorded

for all eternity; + cc.; + 1sPFAI; his words are also recorded for

eternity; + conj.intro.indirect quote/discourse; "that"; + near - "this one"; + 3sPA; + d.a.NsM; + d.a.GsM; gen.of

relationship; another title for Christ.


1. The author now breaks the flow of the context of verses

29-31. (the use of kai vs. kago of vss.31,33,34.)

2. Though both discourses of Jn/B deal with identifying Jesus as

Messiah, the first (vss.29-31) is set to present the gospel

Ph1 to his listeners while the 2nd (vss.32-34) is set to

verigy the veracity of the first.

3. John now offers proof to his statements of vss.29-31.

4. John bears witness as to how he came to absolutely recognize


5. John's first statement reveals what he physically saw with

regards to Jesus baptism ie., the H.S. in theophany.

6. He then iterates (repeats) his comment of vs.31, and I did

not recognize Him to reemphasize there was no physical

manifestation or aura about Jesus that gave him a hint as to

who He was. Is.53:2

7. This statement is then followed with John giving the evidence

of Jesus identity as Messiah as being the theophany of the

H.S. as proclaimed to John by direct revelation from the


8. This scenario proclaimed by John could seemingly be in

contradiction to the statements of Matthew's account in


9. In Matthew it is clear that John recognizes Jesus before the

Dove descended.

10. In order to harmonize these two passages we must be aware of

the following:

A. God revealed to John specifically and unequivocally how

he would know a particular man to be Him.

B. Each person who came to John to be baptized was first

questioned by John to determine if they had repented

(Mt.3:5-8). (There was discourse between John and those

whom he baptized.)

C. When Jesus came to John with the intentions to be

baptized (there is no indication that John was given

prior instructions that he would be baptizing Messiah

Himself) Mt.3:13, there occured conversation between

them, more obviously than recorded.

D. Whether John concluded that Jesus was Messiah via

conversation and BD (realizing the time frame: Dan.9:25;

His lineage: 2Sm.7:12ff; Is.9:6-7; 11:1; His tribe:

Gen.49:10; Rv.5:5; & His birth:) or whether Jesus simply

said to him, "I am He", His words commended themselves

to John as truth.

E. In addition, Jesus physically fulfilled Is.53:2. (He

was normal looking.)

F. John had no reason nt to believe Him and in his trust

showed reluctance to baptize Him. Mt.3:14 (His

reluctance was based on the doctrine of Christ's

precedence and weighs in favor that Jesus baptism was

not in his doctrinal frameword via revelation.)

G. Jesus told him to go ahead with the baptism because "it

is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness", and

John with obedience did so. Mt.3:15 (Jesus gives John

the doctrine behind His order; this too commends itself

to John. Jesus baptism symbolized something different

than with the other ie., it ID'd himself with His

ultimate mission and its effect upon mankind.)

H. With all that may have precluded, it does not go

unnoticed that John has the doctrine of revelation from

the Father, the confirming sign of the Spirit, to rely

upon and now must engage in faithrest that this too will

happen if all is as it seems.

G. As Jesus came up out of the water the

Dove/H.S. descended upon Him.

H. It is only at this point of confirmation was John free

to proclaim this One as Him. (Whether John was

expecting the sign to happen immediately at this point

is unknown, but never the less, because of his obedience

the blessing occured.)

I. From this point on, John could point to a particular man

and say beyond any doubt this was Him.

11. As John was the confirmation to Israel of Messiah's

appearance, so was the Dove John's confirmation that Jesus

was He.

12. John became the 4th witness at Jesus baptism in addition to

the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Mt.3:16-17; Mk.1:10-11;


13. John tells his listeners that it was through direct

revelation from God the Father/BD that enabled him to

absolutely know who Messiah was.

14. The key to John's identification of Messiah was based

strictly upon God's word.

15. In addition to the theophany witnessed by John, God provided

a verbal confirmation that this One indeed was the Son of

God. Mt.3:17

16. The H.S. descended and remained upon Jesus as support to His

humanity and fulfilled Is.42:1 cp.11:1; Mt.12:18

17. The H.S. dwelled with Jesus throughout His ministry per:

A. The abiding bagan after the baptism was complete.

Mt.3:16; Mk.1:10; Lk.3:22

B. He/H.S. provided Jesus direction with regards to His

ministry. Mk.1:12; Lk.4:1,14 (Before and after the


C. Christ is seen to refoice in the H.S. later in His

ministry. Lk.10:21 (Jesus rejoicing over +V and their

acceptance of BD.)

D. The last actions of Jesus after the cross, in

resurrection body but before ascension was via H.S.


18. John says that the Spirit was given to Jesus without measure.


19. The Dove symbolizes peace and innocense/purity (Mt.10:16) and

refers to the doctrine of reconciliation made possible

through Christ and His ministry. Act.10:36

20. The closest parallel to the H.S. as a dove is the language of

Gen.1:2 "The Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of

the waters."

21. The H.S. abiding with the God-man was not only for His own

ministry but had implication to others.

22. The baptism of the H.S. is a reference to Israel being

baptized by the H.S. at the 2nd ladvent per Joel 2:28.

23. A dual application is seen in the baptism of the H.S. at

Pentecost. Act.1:4-5; 2:1-13,16-21

24. It is Jesus who asked the Father to send the H.S. on behalf

of believers. Jn.14:16

25. The fact that the Spirit remained was designed to further

strengthen the witness towards Jesus, since the H.S. was free

to come upon people and empower them and then leave them

during the age of Israel.

26. Some ministries/functions of the H.S. towards mankind


A. Convicting/witnessing Jn.16:7-11

B. Baptizing (sets believers apart into union with Christ:

Gal.3:27 (Positional sanctification) and into the C.U.:


C. Imparts spiritual gifts. 1Co.12:4-11

D. Sealing 2Co.1:22; Ep.1:13; 4:30

E. Indwelling Rm.8:11

F. Filling Ep.5:18; ex.cp.Act.2:4; 4:8

G. Teaching (leads into all truth) Jn.16:13

H. Produces divine good production (fruit/works) Ep.5:22-23

I. Comforting Jn.16:7

27. As John's ministry was that of ritual baptism, Christ's

ministry produced the reality behind the ritual. (John uses

his baptism to point to a greater baptism.)

28. The two perfects in vs.34 I have seen and have borne witness,

describe the lasting effects of what John saw.

29. John's witness here as always was defined/layed out by


30. It was through his +V, continued isolation of his STA, his

acclimation to his niche and acceptance/faith in God's word

that placed John as a primary witness to Jesus as Messiah.

31. There were no guarantees for John at God's revelation of the

confirming sign, that John would fulfill his ministry up to

this time in history.

32. Applic.: Only by hearing God's word and adherence (stick

fast, become attached, to give allegiance, devotion and

support) to it does one "see" the reality of God's plan.

33. John accepted the witness of God as to which One was

He/Messiah; now others should accept his/John's witness.